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2nd Test in Information Systems


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Hierarchy of Data
Bits, characters, fields, records, files, and databases
Generalized class of people, places, or things for which data is collected, sotred, and maintained
A characteristic of an entity; ex- employee #, last name
A field or set of fields in a record that is used to identify the record
Primary Key
A field or set of fields that uniquely identifies the record; ex- Employee #
Entity Relationship Diagrams
Data models that use basic graphical symbols to show the organization of and relatinoships between data
Data manipulation that eliminates rows according to certain criteria
Data manipulation that eliminates columns in a table
Data Dictionary
A detailed description of all te data used in the database
Data Definition Languague (DDL)
A collection of instructions and commands used to define and describe data and data relationships in a specific database
Selecting a Database Management System
Database size, Number of Concurrent Users, Performance, Integration, Features, The Vendor, Cost
Data Warehouse
A database that collects business information from many sources in the enterprise, covering all aspects of the company's processes, products, and customers
Knowledge Management
The process of capturing a company's collective expertise wherever it resides- in computers, on paper, in people's heads, and distributing it wherever it can help produce the biggest payoff
Distributed Database
A database in which the data may be spread across several smaller databases connected via telecommunications devices
Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
Standards that ensure that software can be used with any ODBC-compliant database
Telecommunications Medium
Anything that carries an electronic signal and interfaces between a sending device and a receiving device
Data Communications
A specialized subset of telecommunications that refers to the electronic collection, processing, and distribution of data- typically betwen computer system hardware devices
Simplex Channel
A communications channel that can transmit data in only one direction
Half-Duplex Channel
A communications channel that can transmit data in either direction, but not simultaneiously
Full Duplex Channel
A communications channel that permits data transmission in both directions at the same time; like two simplex lines
Twisted-pair wire cable
twisted paris of copper wire- shielded or unshielded; used for telephone service, widely available; transmission speed and distance limitations
Microwave Transmission
Sent through atmosphere and space; expensive devices; a high freq. radio signal through air; line of sight
Cellular Transmission
Area is divided into cells and transmitted to a receiver and integrated into the regular phone service;
Coaxial Cable
Inner conductor wire surrounded by insulation; cleaner and faster data transmission than twisted-pair wire; more expensive than twisted-pair
Infrared Transmission
Signals sent through air as light waves; Inexpensive installation and removal; must have unobstructed line of sight
A device that rranslates data from digital to analog and analog to digital
A device that allows several telecommunications signals to be transmitted over a single communications medium at the same time
Local Exchange Carrier (LEC)
A public telephone compnay in the US that provides service to homes and businesses within its defined geographical area called its local access and transport area
Competitive Local Exchange Carrier (CLEC)
A company that is allowed to compete with the LECs, such as a wireless, satellite, or cable service provider
Long-Distance Carrier
A traditional long distance phone provider, such as AT&T
Switched Line
A communicatinos line that uses switching equipment to allow one transmission device to be connected to other transmission devices
Dedicated Line
A communications line that provides a constant connection between two points; no switching or dialing is needed, and the two devices are always connected
Wide-Area Telephone Service (WATS)
A fixed-rate long-distance telecommunicaionts service for heavy users of voice services such as cusomter support organizations
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
A telecommunications technology that delivers high-bandwidth information to homes and small businesses over ordinary copper telephone wires
Network Topologies
Computers and devices on the networks are called network nodes which can share data, information, and processing jobs; A logical model that describes how networks are structured or configured
Local Area Network (LAN)
A network that connects computer systems and devices within the same geographic area
Metropolitan Area Network
A telecommunications network that connects users and their computer within a geographical area larger than that covered by a LAN but smaller than the area covered by a WAN, such as a city or campus
File Server
An architecture in which the application and database reside on one host computer, called the file server
Open Systems Interconnection Model (OSI)
A standard model for network architectures and is endorsed by the International Standards Committee; divideds data communications functions into seven distinct layers
Names of OSI Layers
Application, Presentation, Session, Transport, Network, Data Link, Physical; APSTND
Wireless Protocols
Connect devices; Bluetooth, Wi-Fi
Private Branch Exchange (PBX)
An on-premise switching system owned or leased by a private enterprise that interconnects its telephones and provides access to the public telephone system
A device used to connect two or more networks that use the same communications protocol
A telecommunications device that routes incoming data from any one of many ports to a specific output port that will take the data towrad its intended destination
A device or software in a computer that determines the next nework point to which a data packet should be forwarded toward its destination
Centralized Processing
Processing alternative in which all processing occurs in a single location or facility
Decentralized Processing
Prociessing alternative in which processing devices are placed at various remote locations
Distributed Processing
Processing alternative in which computers are placed at remote locations but connected to each other via a network
A work arrangement whereby employees work away from the office using personal computers and networks to communicate via e-mail with other workers and to pick up and deliver results
A telecommunication system that combines video and phone call capabilities with data or document conferencing
Beginning of Internet
Started by DoD as an experiment and networking means to link DoD with military research contractors in 1969
Internet Proctocol (IP)
communication standard that enables traffic to be routed from one network to another as needed
Transmission control Protocol (TCP)
Widely used transport layer protocol that is used in combination with IP by most internet applications
Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
An assigned address on the internet for each computer
Affiliation ID
Com - bus. organizations; edu - educational sites; gov- gov. sites; net - networking organizations; org - organizations
Internet Service Provider (ISP)
Any company that provides individuals or organizations with access to the internet
World Wide Web (WWW)
A collection of tens of thousands of independently owned computers that work together as one in an internet service
Tolls that connect the data on web pages, allowing users to access topics in whatever order they wish
Hyptertext Markup Language (HTML)
The standard page description language for web pages
Extensible Markup Language (XML)
Markup language for Web documents containing structured information, including words, pictures, and other elements; ex- <CHAPTER>Hardware
Small program embedded in web pages
Web Browser
Software that creates a unique, hypermedia-based menu on a computer screen, providing a graphical interface to the web
Search Engine
A web search tool
Meta-Search Engine
A tool that submits keywords to several individual search engines and returns the results from all search engines queried
Push Technology
automatic transmission of information over the internet rather than making users serarch for it with their browsers
Improves efficiency of communications; enables you to sent text, binary files, sound, and images to others
Chat Rooms
Enables two or more people to have online text converstations in real time; interactive conversations over the internet
Instant Messaging
Allows two or more people to communicate instantly on the internet
A terminal emulation protocol that enables users to log on to other computers on the internet to gain access to public files
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A protocol that describes a file transfer process between a host an a remote computer and allows users to copy files from one computer to another- more reliable than downloading
Web Log (Blog)
A website that people can create and use to write about their observations, experiences, and feelings on a wide range of topics
A system closely allied witht he internet that uses email to provide a centralized new service; a protocol that describes how groups of messages can be stored on and sent between computers
Online discussion groups that focus on specific topics
Content Streaming
A method for transferring multimedia files over the internet so that the data stream of voice and pictures plays without break
An internal corporate network built using internet and WWW standards and products; used by employees to gain access to corporate information; closed
A network based on web technologies that links selected resources of a company's intranet with its customers, suppliers, or other business partners; extend intranet to business partners
Virtual Private Network (VPN)
A secure connection between two points across the internet
The process by which VPNs transfer information by encapsulating traffic in IP packets over the internet
A text file that an internet compnay can place on the ahrd disk of a computer system to track user movements
The process of converting a message into a secret code and changing the encoded message back to regular text
The conversion of a message into a secret code
A device that sits between an internal network and the internet, limiting access into and out of a network based on access policies
Business-to-Consumer (B2C)
A form of e-commerce in which customers deal directly with the organiztion, avioding any intermediaries
Business-to-Business (B2B)
A form of e-commerce in which the participants are organizations
Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C)
A form of e-commerce in which the participants are individuals, with the one serving as the buyer and the other as the seller
Multistage Model
1) Search and Identification; 2) Selection and Negotiation; 3)Purchasing; 4) Product and Service Delivery; 5) After-Sales Service
Split-Case Distirbution
A distribution system that requires cases of goods to be opened on the receiving dock and the individual items from the cases to be stored in the manufacturer's warehouse
Electronic Retailing (E-Tailing)
The direct sale from business to consumer through electronic store-fronts, typically designed around an electronic catalog and shopping cart model
Electronic Exchange
An electonic forum where manufacturers, suppliers, and copetitors buy and sell goods, trade market information, and run back-office operations
Technology-Enabled Relationship Management
The use of detailed information about a customer's behavior, preferences, needs, and buying patterns to set prices, negotiate terms, tailor promotions, add product features, and otherwise customize the entire relationship with that customer
Bogus messages purportedly from a legitimate institution to pry personal information from customers by convincing them to go to a 'spoof' website
E-mail sent to a wide range of people and usenet gropus indiscriminately
Common Traps
Online Auction fraud; Pyramid Scheme- illegal; Investment Fraud; Stock Scams
Electronic Bill Presentment
A method of billing whereby the biller posts an image of your statement on the internet and alerts you by email that your bill has arrived

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