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Review of Cardiovascular System


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Morbidity and Mortality causes
#1 MI
#2 CHF
#3 CVA

48% of all persons with heart disease are women, no longer are men at much of a higher risk
Heart Anatomy
-four layers
-Blood supply
-Epicardium, myocardium, endocardium and pericardium
-Coronary artery
Conduction Pathway
sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, bundle of His, R and L bundle branches, Purkinje Fibers
Transmission of the Impulse-
Depolarization- __ out and __ into cell.
Repolarization- ___ enters the cells
Depolarization K+ out and Na+ into cell, causes myocardial contraction
-Repolarization Ca+ entering the cells, baseline/muscle relaxation
*Cardiac Action Potential*
The electrical potential created by ionic movement as recorded within a single cell. Ions include K+, Na, and Ca.
The cardiac cycle
S1 (lub) and S2 (dub)
Systole= time between S1 and S2(Blood is flowing out to the body)
Diastole= time between S2 and the repeat of S1(blood flows back into the heart)
Abnormal heart sounds:
S3 and S4
Snaps, clicks, murmurs, friction rub.
-S3-failure of ventricles to completely empty.
-S4-ventricles not as receptive to filling. S3&S4 often heard in CHF.
-Snaps(stenosis of mitral valve), Clicks(ejection of blood through stenotic aortic valve)
Cardiac Output (CO)

Stroke Volume (SV)
Amount of blood pumped through ventricles over 1 min.

Amount of blood ejected by heart in one beat

Preload and Afterload
Preload- volume of blood and force it exerts coming into the ventricles.
Afterload- pressure gradient against which the ventricles are pumping blood.
Pulse Deficient
Difference between apical pulse and radial pulse
Pulse pressure
<30 Ex:120/110= small pulse pressure= decreased SV and CO
>50 Ex: 140/60= wide pulse pressure= hyperthyroidism, and some times in athletes
Cardiac Catherization(invasive)
evaluate patency of coronary arteries, valvular function, measures pressure w/in heart chambers, and 02 saturation.
-NPO, A dye is injected, giving a flushed feeling. Are awake
Risks: may cause arrhythmias, bleeding, infection, may loosen a piece of plaque.
Post-op assess: pedial pulses, site, arrhythmias and heart rate and rhythm.

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