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What may occur at the rate fossil fuels are being used?
run out
What is smelting?
a method of refining - a chemical process that removes unwanted elements from the metal that is being processed
What are two hydrocarbons?
oil, natural gas
What is the name of a thick, black liquid formed fromt he buried remains of microscopic marine organisms?
What is the name of fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas that form from the remains of plants and other organisms buried for over millions of years?
fossil fuels
Why is garbage a good source of energy?
could lessen human dependence on fossil fuels - it is also a cheap source of energy and reduces the amount of material that must be dumped in landfills
Where is more carbon contained than in all current fossil fuel deposits combined?
methane hydrates
What can act as passive solar collectors?
south-facing windows on buildings - warming exposed rooms
How is energy produced from garbage?
when garbage is burned, heat is produced which turns water to steam. This steam turns turbines that run generators to produce electricity
What layer of coal forms when bituminious coal is heated and squeezed during metamorphisis?
How are oil and natural gas removed?
pumping them out of the ground
What is table salt produced from?
What occurs during nuclear fission?
energy is given off when a heavy atom splits into lighter atoms
What are found as stable molecules hundreds of meters below the sea level in ocean floor sediment?
methane hydrates
Which type of coal is compact, black, and brittle?
What happens during refining?
a pure or nearly pure substance is produced from the ore
How is water used to generate energy?
when it is released, its force turns turbines at the base of the dam and the turbines then turn generators that make electricity
How is concrete formed?
aggregates are mixed with cement
What are ores?
deposits of minerals in large enough amounts that they can be mined at a profit
What is used to actively collect energy from the sun and transform it into electricity?
solar cells
What are the types of underground coal mines?
drift mines and slope mines
What is done to the rock to allow oil and gas to flow into the well?
What types of substances known as methane hydrates could provide huge reserves of methane?
What type of mining is done in an angled opening and air shaft made in the side of a mountain to remove the coal?
slope mining
How long will some waste remain radioactive?
thousands of years
What are the stages of coal formation
dead plant material, lignite coal, bituminous coal, and anthracite coal
What is one problem associated with garbage as an energy source?
the production of toxic ash and air pollution
What is a wind farm?
when large numbers of windmills are placed in one area for the purpose of generating electricity
Where are vast quanities of oil and natural gas used for daily energy requirements?
What may be used as a paving stone or as part of a concrete mixture?
How long does it take fossil fuels to form?
millions of years
What is used today more widely than any other type of biomass fuel?
firewood - much of the world still cooks with wood
Are there any environmental problems that result from energy from water?
yes, when dams are built, upstream lakes fill with sediment and downstream erosion increases - land above the dam can be flooded damaging wildlife habitats
What is the term for the amount of fossil fuel that can be extracted at a profit using current technology?
What are mineral resources?
deposits of useful minerals
When is a mineral deposit considered an ore?
when the mineral is in demand and can be fairly easily separated from the material in which it is found
True or False - Nuclear energy is a fossil fuel?
How do methane hydrates form?
low temperatures and high pressures
What may someday provide energy for the home?
What are fuels that are extracted from solid organic material called?
synthetic fuels
What is significant about corundum and garnet?
both are hard and able to scratch most other materials they come into contact with
What is the soft, brown material that has much less moisture in it than peat?
What are some problems associated with using wood as a biomass fuel?
gases and small particles are released - these can pollute the air - also trees that are cut down cause destroyed habitats
How many stages are there of coal formation?
What are some examples of nature's use of solar energy?
global winds and ocean currents
How is ore refined?
by extracting a useful substance from an ore through concentrating and refining
What type of marine organisms die and fall to the seafloor where sediment is deposited on top of them?
What is gasohol?
a mixture of gasoline and ethanol
What does dead plant material eventually form?
How can wind be used as a source of energy?
windmills can generate electricity
What is used indirectly when the wind and some types of moving water are used to do work?
solar energy
Which type of coal is the cleanest burning?
What is geothermal energy?
energy obtained from using hot magma or hot dry rocks inside the earth
What can trap oil and natural gas below it?
folded shale layer
What is the ability to cause change?
What are obtained from industrial minerals?
many useful chemicals - fertilizers and table salt
What are extracted from coal to form liquid and gaseous fuels?
What types of layers of rock are oil and natural gas found in?
tilted or folded
What type of energy is an alternate energy source produced from atomic reactions?
What type of energy comes from the sun?
What is nuclear energy?
an alternative energy source produced from atomic reactions
What are resources that are being used faster than natural Earth processes can replace them?
nonrenewable energy resources
When is the drilling stopped?
when the drill bit reaches the rock layer containing oil
What types of professionals are involved with drilling wells for oil and gas?
geologists and engineers
What forms under similar conditions as oil, but forms in a gaseous state?
natural gas
What are some ways to conserve fossil fuels?
turn off lights and appliances, make sure doors and windows are shut tightly during cold weather, run air-conditioning as little as possible
What is hydroelectricity?
electricity produced by waterpower
How do we get energy from the Earth?
steam is used to turn turbines that run generators to make electricity
What type of mining involves the removal of coal that is not close to the Earth's surface through a horizontal opening in the side of a hill or mountain?
drift mining
What layer forms as lignite becomes buried by more sediment and receives more heat and pressure?
What is an example of a rock that is composed of at least 50 % plant remains?
How do geothermal power plants work?
steam from the reservoirs produces electricity
What is an example of a renewable energy source?
trees or biomass materials
Why is ethanol not used more often?
growing the corn and distilling the ethanol often uses more energy from burning fossil fuels than the amount of energy that is derived from the burning of ethanol
What is the most abundant fossil fuel in the world?
What is aggregate?
a building material composed of crushed stone or a mixture of gravel and sand
What eventually causes dead plankton to change to oil and gas?
increased heat
Why is wind only a limited source of energy?
few regions have strong enough winds to generate electricity and sometimes the wind blows too hard - other times it is too weak or stops entirely
What have recent studies shown might be located beneath the seafloor?
What are renewable energy resources?
resources that can be replaced in nature or by humans within a relatively short period of time
What are nonmetallic mineral resources?
any mineral resource not used as a fuel
What forms over million of years from the remains of tiny marine organisms in ocean sediment?
How long must nuclear waste be stored safely before reentering the environment?
10,000 years
What are abrasives made from?
deposits of corundum and garnet
What are the groups of nonmetallic mineral resources?
industrial minerals and building materials
What is an example of a heavy atom?
How are fossil fuels formed?
from the alteration of the remains of living organisms over long periods of time
What is one way to recycle when building?
using old materials to make new ones
What is produced at power plants that consists of highly radioactive elements formed by the fission process?
nuclear waste
How are industrial minerals and building materials alike?
both are nonmetallic mineral resources - used for their physical properties or to obtain chemicals
What is the rock layer beneath shale where petroleum and natural gas accumulate called?
reservoir rock
What are some ways to remove coal?
strip mining and underground mining
How is alcohol used as an energy source?
during distillation of corn, the biomass product of ethanol is produced and ethanol can be mixed with another fuel
What happens when the nucleus of a heavy element is split?
lighter elements form and energy is released
What is a benefit of fluid biomass fuels?
more efficient and have more uses
What is considered to be a nonrenewable energy resource because it uses uranium-235 as fuel?
nuclear energy
What are some rocks that are used as building materials?
granite, limestone, or sandstone
What is biomass energy?
energy derived from burning organic material such as wood, alcohol, and garbage
What are some disadvantages of solar energy?
solar cells work less efficiently on cloudy days, don't work at all at night, and though batteries can be used to store energy for those times - it is difficult to store large amounts of energy that way
What are some benefits of energy produced by wind?
it is free and nonpolluting - produces no waste nor does it harm the environment in any way
What must an area have to use wind as an energy source?
persistent wind that blows at an appropriate speed
What is built to generate electricity from running water?
a large concrete dam to retain the water
Why are oil and natural gas forced upward?
less dense than water
What is another name for strip mining?
open-pit mining

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