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Psych 223 Ch.13


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Gender Typing
process by which a child becomes aware of his or her gender and acquires motives, values, and behaviours considered appropriate for members of that sex
gender-role standard
behaviour, value or motive that members of a society consider more typical or appropriate for members of one sex
expressive role
social prescription, usually directed toward females, that one should be cooperative, kind, nurturant, and sensitive to the needs of others
instrumental role
social prescription, usually directed toward males, that one should be dominant, independent, assertive, competitive, and goal-oriented
visual/spatial abilities
abilities to mentally manipulate or otherwise draw inferences about pictoral information
self-fulfilling prophecy
phenomenon whereby people cause others to act in accordance with the expectations they have about those others
Gender identity
one\'s awareness of one\'s gender and its implications
Gender intensification
magnification of sex differences early in adolescence; associated with increased pressure to conform to traditional gender roles
Gender segregation
children\'s tendency to associate with same-sex playmates and to think of the other sex as an out-group
Money and Ehrhardt (1972) Gender differentiation dvmt
proposed that a number of critical episodes or events affect a person\'s eventual preference for the masculine or the feminine gender role
testicular feminization syndrome (TFS)
genetic anomaly in which a male fetus is insensitive to the effects of male sex hormones and develops female-like external genitalia
timing-of-puberty effect
finding that people who reach puberty late perform better on visual/spatial tasks than those who mature early
congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH)
genetic anomaly that causes one\'s adrenal glands to produce unusually high levels of androgen from the prenatal period onward; often has masculinzing effects on female fetuses
androgenized females
females who develop male-like external genitalia because of exposure to male sex hormones during the prenatal period
phallic stage
Freud\'s third stage of psychosexual development (from 3 to 6 years of age), in which children gratify the sex instinct by fondling their genitals and developing an incestuous desire for the parent of the other sex
Freud\'s term for the child\'s tendency to emulate another person, usually the same-sex parent
castration anxiety
in Freud\'s theory, a young boy\'s fear that his father will castrate him as punishment for his rivalrous conduct
oedipus complex
Freud\'s term for the conflict that 3 to 6 year old boys were said to experience when they develop an incestuous desire for their mothers and a jealous and hostile rivalry with their fathers
Electra complex
female version of the Oedipus complex, in which a 3 to 6 year old girl was thought to envy her father for possessing a penis and to choose him as a sex object in the hope that he would share with her this valuable organ that she lacked
direct tuition
teaching young children how to behave by reinforcing \"appropriate\" behaviours and by punishing or otherwise discouraging inappropriate conduct
Basic gender identity
stage of gender identity in which the child first labels the self as a boy or a girl
gender stability
stage of gender identity in which the child recognizes that gender is stable over time
gender consistency (or gender constancy)
stage of gender identity in which the child recognizes that a person\'s gender is invariant despite changes in the person\'s activities or appearance
gender schemas
organized sets of beliefs and expectations about males and females that guide information processing
in-group/out-group schema
one\'s general knowledge of the mannerisms, roles, activities, and behaviours that characterize males and females
own-sex schema
detailed knowledge of plans of action that enable a person to perform gender-consistent activities and to enact his or her gender role
gender-role orientation in which the individual has incorporated a large number of both masculine and feminine attributes into his or her personality
aspect of self referring to erotic thoughts, actions, and orientation
double standard
view that sexual behaviour that is appropriate for members of one gender is less appropriate for the members of the other gender

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