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Psych 210


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Sheffield & Everitt
Sheffield - instrumental/descrete trial; IV: sexual activity / Everitt - IV: response rate; both disproved Drive Reduction theory of reinforcement by using sexual activity as a reinforcer
Aristotle's 3 principles
Contiguity: the more closely two items occur together in space/time, the more likely will the thought of one lead to the thought of the other, Similarity: thought of one concept leads to thoughts of similar concepts, Contrast: thought of one leads to thought of its opposite
primary visual cortex
conscious perception of a visual stimulus (damage leads to lack of conscious awareness of parts of visual field)
stamping in/out
refers to inclusion/elimination of responses during trial & error learning
2- factor theory of avoidance
escape responses occur in the avoidance task b/c: presentation of the CS elicits fear, an escape response is produced to terminate the fear-eliciting CS
Kamin's Blocking experiment
violated principles of frequency
partial reinforcer effect
FR 1000 schedule will be more resistant to extinction, best explained by generalization decrement hypothesis
Aj < Vsum when?
trial 1 of extinction
Clive Wearing's Herpes Encephalitis
affects temporal lobes; leads to breakdown in associations - functions disconnected from labels (trouble defining words)
premotor cortex
blueprint for motor programs representing procedural knowledge
Attribution model of learned helplessness
treatable if attributions are situation-specific & short-term
associative agnosia
deficits associating names/labels with objects - can copy a picture, but can't draw something from an auditory stimulus
Hubel & Wiesel
visual system - simple cells & visual detectors
all behavior avoids pain/pursues pleasure (hedonism)
observational studies
experimenter is a passive spectator in the natural environment
motivational, incentive value, hedonic characteristics of reinforcers
receptors convert the energy of a sensory stimulus into neural activity
the response to a CS can be reduced/eliminated by extinguishing the CS
conditioned suppression
suppression = Responses before CS - responses during CS / responses before CS
apperceptive agnosia
produces an inability to link the parts of objects together to represent the whole
Brown & Jacobs, Miller, Rescorla & LeLordo
an organism will emit an avoidance response to terminate a fear-eliciting CS --- TWO FACTOR theory
archival studies
examines permanent/ongoing records of society
Retinitis pigmentosa
hereditary, rods become damaged - treat by injectinv premature rod & cone cells
electrical stimulation to patients during brain surgery - it elicited vivid sensations/memories
premack's principle
no absolute cateogories of reinforcers/responses, depends on where the behavior is on the probability scale
a decrease in the number of repetitions required to relearn nonsense syllables from an original list
stimulus that is a reinforcer in one situation will be a reinforcer in others
ratio strain
occurs on a large FR schedule (e.g. FR 1000)
learned helplessness - chemical changes
norepinephrine depletion, enkephalines block substance P so you don't know you're in pain
Pavlov's "Centers" in the brain
US and Response centers are INNATELY connected; CS and US centers become connected as a consequence of conditioning; CS-US is NOT innate
Siegel's drug tolerance theory
CS = context (creates a conditioned compensatory response); US = morphine; CS = increased sensitivity to heat
CS2 fails to gain excitatory strength b/c it is presented in a compound with a strong CS
Retardation Test
used to determine if a CS is a CONDITIONED INHIBITOR - measures number of trials needed to convert the C-I to an excitatory CS
drive reduction theory
all organizms possess necessities that produce intense stimulation when unfulfilled; intense stimulation is aversive so reducing it is a reinforcer
s-r-sr MEMORY
Pavlov's stimulus substitution theory
problem: direction of CR is opposite UR (conditioned compensatory responses) / CS-UR is an S-R association, NOT innate
damage to LGN or prestriate cortex - lose ability to fluidly track something that moves
response blocking
presenting a CS that was previously paired with an aversive US and preventing the subject from producing an escape response
optimal stimulation hypothesis
any stimulus that allows an organism to function at an intermediate level of internal arousal = reinforcer
when a subject exhibits a CR to new stimuli that are similar to a previously conditioned stimulus
Thorndike's training procedure
discrete trial procedure
negative reinforcement
unpleasant stimulus is removed to increase behavior
Urbach Weith's disease
calcification of the amygdala; impaired emotional processing & memory for emotionl events
summation test
pairing the C-I with a novel excitatory CS
inferotemporal cortex
BOTTOM of brain; damage: inability to attach labels, form associations
postreinforcement pause
predicted by knowing the size of the upcoming ratio schedule
light on the back of the retina
bleaches rhodopsin --> retinal & opsin
simultaneously pairing fearful stimuli with a relaxed state
hemi-neglect & posterior parietal lobe
complete loss of awareness in one half of the visual field
learning: the purpose of food reinforcement given after escape from the box insures that no new S-R associations will form
every experienced event has an underlying cause
overexpectation effect
in phase 2, CS's become inhibitory because Aj < Vsum
medial forebrain bundle
reinforcing effects of brain stim. were first observed after stimulating this
3 behavior factors that lead to learned helplessness
motivational, cognitive, emotional
"cogito ergo sum"; pineal gland = soul
Bechara et al. - Amygdala vs. Hippocampus learning during CC
IV: selection of subjects, visual/auditory stimuli; DV: SCR, knowledge about training experience; findings showed that amygdala forms associations between affect & sensory stimuli
Rescorla-Wagner formula
DeltaVi (change in strength of CS) = Si (salience of US) [Aj (asymptotic strength of US) - Vsum (associative ability of CS)]
descriptive studies
inability to recognize facess; results from damage to FUSIFORM area
list-learning: weak associations are formed from item B to item A (backwards list learning)
Tolman & Hoznik
learning may occur with little/no reinforcement, but operant performance is influenced by amt of reinforcement
reasoning clears away ignorance & confusion and allows one to discover TRUTHS about the world
one-factor theory of avoidance
avoidance of an aversive event itself serves as a reinforcer
posterior parietal cortex
TOP of brain; damage = difficulty attaching meaning to words
presenting a novel stimulus prior to a CS will cause an extinguished CS to once again produce a CR
Unconditioned Responses
reflexes, glandular secretions, emotional reaction
case studies
examine a particular individual(s) in detail, usually rare/new diseases
sensory preconditioning
e.g. light is paired with a tone, then tone is paired with airpuff until it elicits a response; light is presented and it also elicits a response
ventral stream
WHAT pathway
spatial/temporal pattern of nerve impulses
inferotemporal cortex
all experiences are composed of sensations (synchronous sensations & ideas)
psych needs to deal with only observable events (stimuli & responses)
memories are distributed over many sections of the brain
Changes in behavior that represent learning
form/topography improves, # of errors decreases, intensity of response changes, latency of response decreases, rate/frequency changes
posterior parietal cortex
simultaneous conditioning
CS and US overlap in both long delay/short delay conditioning
multiple schedule
different discriminative stimuli indicate reinforcement on different schedules in the same trial
motor cortex
executes motor programs and sends information to the body
opponent-process theory
B state peaks less rapidly than the A state during the first encounter of a stimulus
quality matters more for primary reinforcers, quantity matters more for secondary reinforcers
goal-directed systems
actual input, reference input, comparator, action system, output
when Aj = Vsum
when extinction is complete; when a CS reliably produces a CR
confounding variable
a variable that is not of interest to the researcher but can affect the results of an experiment if not properly controlled
experimental studies
allows experimenter to intentionally manipulate variables/measure the effects
Staddon & Simmelhag's superstition experiment
interim & terminal behaviors; evidence for response-reinforcer bonds
negative punishment
remove pleasant stimulus to reduce behavior - e.g. time out
Sidman's experiment - was there a CS?
yes: the passage of time
response deprivation theory
baseline levels of 2 behaviors reflect adaptive equilibrium level - any schedule that lowers this baseline causes the behavior to become a reinforcer
Factors determining how effective a punishment procedure will be on behavior
manner of introduction, immediacy of punishment, schedule of punishment, motivation to respond, availability of alternative behaviors, punishment as a discriminative stimulus
caudate & putamen
stimulus-response associations are located here
human at birth = tabula rasa
Observational studies look at
continuity, duration, frequency, interval
secondary principles of association (length of time/vividness determines strength)
Definition of Learning
a relatively permanent change in the potential for responding resulting from experience
CS becomes inhibitory when the size of the US is LESS than what's expected
REthinking the concept of learning
A) form associations by understanding relationships between stimuli B) attach new meaning to stimuli based on these relationships C) develop new responses/knowledge to previously insignificant stimuli
dorsal stream
where/how pathway
parvocellular (3-6): color, finer detail, form - sends to inferotemporal cortex; Magnocellular (1&2): movement, orientation, contrast -- sends to prestriate cortex; LGN receives info from optic nerve
will always elicit UR
sensoery stimuli attach to sensory receptors (rods & cones)
single reinforcement center (electrical brain stimulation hypothesis)
contrafreeloading effect
you do what you did the last time you were in that situation - e.g. put rats in the only box where they are fed, they eat till they are full, take them out for a few minutes, then put them back and they will eat again

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