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Psych Chapters 9, 13, 14


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This condition is called _____: stimulation of one sensory modality leading to perceptual experience in another sensory modality.
Refers to the absence of senstation.
What are some examples of synesthesia?
One woman named Katherine sees in vivid colors letters and numbers printed in black and white.

Other forms of synesthesia include hearing colors, feeling sounds, or tasting shapes.
Synesthesia affects what percent of the population? Is it more common in men or women? Since what century has it been reported?
Less than 1 percent.

More common in women.

Reported since the 1700s.
Refers to a combination, or synthesis of sensations.
Synesthesia would be considered an ...
additional sensory dimension.
True or False

Synesthetes have normal vision and color vision?
True or False

In synesthetes, PET scans have revealed that the intitial pathways for sensory information arrive at the correct areas of the brain.

(i.e., visual information goes to the visual cortex and not to the auditory cortex)
In synesthetes, in what part of the brain does there appear to be cross-communication that does not occur in nonsynesthetes?
In the somatosensory cortex and associated areas.
What happens with the sensory information a synesthete receives?
After initial processing, a different use of the information results in altered perception and, thus, an "altered" state of consciousness.
The beginning of chapter 9 begins with discussing ...

The remainder of the chapter is devoted to ...
the nature of and functions of consciousness.

states of consciousness.
A deviation from the normal waking state is ...
an altered state of consciousness.
the subjective awareness of mental events.
When it comes to states of consciousness, what is the most basic distinction?
Between waking and sleeping, exploring the stages of sleep and the nature of dreaming.
States of consciousness--
qualitatively different patterns of subjective experience, including ways of experiencing both internal and external events.
Changes in interpersonal thought, feeling, and behavior throughtout the life span.
Social Development
Whose findings established that perceived security, not food, is the crucial element in forming attachment relationships in primates?
Harry Harlow
Infants and children raised with little or no human contact are called ...
feral children.
Who developed attachment theory?
John Bowlby
Harry Harlow referred to the ties that bind an infant to its caregivers as ...
contact comfort.
A scientist interested in comparative animal behavior.
Who argued that attachment behavior is prewired in humans?
John Bowlby
When does the attachment system turn on?
When a child feels threatened.
Social thought involves changes in ...
interpersonal thought, feeling, and behavior throughout the life span.
Attachment refers to ...
the enduring ties children form with their primary caregivers; it includes a desire for proximity to an attachment figure, as sense of security derived from the person's presence, and feelings of distress when the person is absent.
Critical Period
- an optimal period shortly after birth when an organism's exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development.
What four patterns of infant attachment have researchers discovered?
secure, avoidant, ambivalent, and disorganized
Infant attachment patterns reflect a combinatin of ...
temperament, parental responsiveness, and the interaction of the two.
Attachment security in infancy predicts ...
social competence as well as school grades from preschool through adolescence.
Swiss developmental psychologist, famous for his work with children and his theory of cognitive development.
Jean Piaget
Is best known for reorganizing cognitive development into a series of stages.
Jean Piaget
How many types of research designs do developmental psychologists rely on?

What are they?

Cross-sectional studies

Longitudial studies

Sequential studies
Prenatal development is divided into how many stages, and what are they?

germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods.
Prenatal development can be disrupted by harmful environmental agents known as ______.
teratogens (alcohol, Xrays, rubella, and thalidomide are examples)
Agent affecting embryo or fetus: an agent that interrupts or alters the normal development of a fetus, with results that are evident at birth. (onelook)
Neural development, both prenatally and throughout childhood, proceeds through ...
myelination, trimming back of neurons, and increasing dendritic connections.
Intermodal understanding is ...
the ability of babies to associate sensations about an object from different senses and to match their own actions to behaviors they observe visually--in the earliest days of life.
Piaget proposed that children develop knowledge by ...
inventing, or 'constructing', a reality out of their own experience.
According to Piaget, people cognitively adapt to their environment through ...

These are ______ and ______.
two interrelated processes.

Assimilation and Accomodation
Assimilation means ...
interpreting actions or events in terms of one's present schemas, that is, fitting reality into one's previous way of thinking.
Accommodation involves ...
modifying schemas to fit reality.
Who proposed a stage theory of cognitive development?
During the sensorimotor stage, thought primarily takes the form of ...
perception and action.
Do children aquire objective permanence gradually or quickly?
Objective permanence:
recognizing that objects exist in time and space independent of their actions on or observation of them.
Sensorimotor children are extremely ______, or ...
egocentric, or throughly embedded in their own point of view.
The preoperational stage is characterized by ...
the emergence of symbolic thought.
In Piaget's stage theory of cognitive development, what did he called the third stage and why?
Piaget called it the concrete operational stage because at this point children can operate on, or mentally manipulate, internal representations of concrete objects in ways that are reversible.
The formal operational stage is characterized by ...
the ability to reason about formal propositions rather than concrete events.
Psychologists have criticized Piaget for ...
underestimating the capacities of younger children, assuming too much consistency across domains, and downplaying the influence of culture.
The information-processing approach to cognitive development focuses on ...
the development of different aspects of cognition.
The concrete operational child understands ...
conversation--the idea that basic properties of an object or situation remain stable even though superficial properties may change.
Understanding one's own thinking processes (thinking about thinking).
metacognitive abilities
Integrative, or neo-Piagetian, theories attempt to ...
wed stage conceptions with research on information processing and domain-specific knowledge.
The most common cognitive declines with age are ...
psychomotor slowing; difficulty with explicit memory retrival; and decreased speed and efficiency of problem solving.
Intellectual capacities used in processing many kinds of information.
fluid intelligence
The person's store of knowledge.
Crystallized intelligence.
What type of intelligence begins to decline gradually in midlife?
fluid intelligence
Senile dementia is ...
a disorder marked by global disturbance of higher mental functions.
Well over half the cases of senile dementia result from ...
Alzheimer's disease.
When is the optimal time to attain native fluency?
The first three years of life.
What type of intelligence continues to expand over the life span?
crystallized intelligence
After age ___, even near-native fluency is difficult to achieve.
Young childrens' speech is _____ speech, omitting all but the essential words.
By age ___, children's sentences largely conform to the grammar of their language.
Developmental psychology studies ...
the way humans develop and change over time.
What are three issues that reverberate throughout all of developmental psychology?
The roles of nature and nurture, the importance of early experience, and the extent to which development occurs in "stages."
genetically programmed maturation
Maturation refers to ...
biologically based changes that follow an orderly sequence.
Environmental events turn genes ...
on and off.
Human development is characterized by ...
critical periods or sensitive periods, and whether development occurs in stages or is continuous is still a matter under discussion.
learning and experience
critical periods
periods central to specific types of learning that modify future development
relatively discrete steps through which everyone progresses in the same sequence
sensitive periods
times that are particularly important but not definitive for subsequent development
What three types of research designs do psychologists primarily use to study development?
cross-sectional, longitudinal, and sequential.
Cross-sectional studies compare ...
groups of subjects of different ages at a single time to see whether differences exist among them.
Cross-sectional studies are useful for ...
providing a snapshot of age differences, or variations among people of different ages.

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