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Psych test Memory


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Process that puts info to be remembered into forms we can use
-use memory codes to do this
Memory codes
go from the senses to mental representations
- Visual
Acoustic Code
Visual Code
Semantic Codes
general meaning of an experience (recognising an experience)
holding of info. in memory over time
-ability to find info. and bring it into conciousness
-Finding/ retrieving memories
-Recall and recognition
trying to remember without using hints
remembering memories using hints
Episodic Memory
A Memory of any event that happened while you were there EVENTS
Semantic Memory
Generalized knowledge about your world (no specific events) INFORMATION
Procedural Memory
Involves a memory of how to do something- ACTION
ex. ride a bike, walk
Explicit Memories
deliberately tyring to remember a memory
Implicit Memories
unintentional recollection and influence of prior experience
Information Processing Model
For Info to be placed firmly in memory, goes through 3 mental processes
1) Sensory Mem.
2) STM
3) LTM
Sensory Memory
-deals with sensation and Perception
-info held for less than 1 sec.
-goes to STM if it is important, if not , gone in 20 sec.
-further processing enters LTM
Short Term Memory
18-30 sec. long
acoustic- saying things out loud
visual- writing them down
physical- new dance move
"Magic Number"- Chunks
6-7 bits of info. at a time in STM
Miller- STM = 5 + or - 2 (3-7) chunks of info.
Diff. between LTM and STM
STM- more detailed info- frontal lobe

LTM- holds memories with meaning- may lose some detail- hippocampus and cerebral cortex
repeating things over and over
Long Term Memory
3 ways to store LTM
-Procedural and Semantic stored the best
Procedural LTM
bringing out the memory of skills
Semantic LTM
memory for meaning
(ex: rem. meaning of moment or person)
Episodic LTM
Stores info. of experiences that u are involved in w/a specific time and space
Recall Retrieval
ex: essay questions
give no clues
Recognition Retrieval
ex: Multiple choice
Use Clues
Re-Learning Method
If it takes less time to re-learn info than the first time, then it is in your memory
Serial Effect
1st words go to the LTM because of rehersal

Last Words go to STM and are easy to retrieve

ex: reading the word list
Retrieval Cues
stimuli which help you retrieve info. from the LTM
Encoding Specificity Principle
The effectiveness of retrieval cues depends on extent to which they tap into info. that was encoded at the time of learning
Context Dependant Memories
memories that are helped or hindered by similarities or differences in the environment (ex. apple smell room)
State Dependant Memories
The retrieval of memories are influenced by our internal state (ex: feel happy in relationship - remember happy times, feel sad- remember sad times)
Constructive memory
Filling in the gaps based on generalized knowledge (ex. Room- thinking there was a wastebasket or book)
Decay Theory
Memories that are unused are going to fade over time- WORKS ONLY FOR STM
Interference Theory
Other memories (similar to the one you are trying to recall) will interfere with the retrieval of a particular memory
Proactive Interference
Interference built up by prior learning
(can remember old info, but not new)
ex: Remembering James's room # interferes with remembering Amandas
Retroactive Interference
Interference created by later learning
(Can remember new info. not old)
ex: can remember Amanda's new # but forget the one James told you
Reconstruction Theory
Info. in the LTM is not forgotten but is sometimes reacalled in a distorted or incorrect way
Motivated Forgetting Theory
Forgetting info. because it's threatening to us
(traumatic exper.)
Visual Biology of Memory
visual info. is 1st routed through the thalamus to the occipital area of the cerebral cortex (sensory register)

STM Biology of Remembering
relayed to frontal and parietal lobes
30 SEC
LTM Biology of Forgetting
info. transferred to hippocampus(can be stored for several weeks to months) and then transfrerred to where it was processed
Recalling LTM (Biology)
uses Frontal Lobe and held in STM storage (pulling out LTM process)
Anterograde Amnesia
the inability to conciously retrieve new info. from the LTM

-lasts forever
-procedural mem. not effected

(ex. guy in video)
Retrograde Amnesia
Old memories can't be recalled but new ones can


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