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Psych: Chapter 7

Cognitive development in early Childhood

Terms

undefined, object
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intelligence quotient (IQ)
the ratio of mental age to chronological age; also, a general term for any kind of score derived from an intelligence test
corpus callosum
the membrane that connects the right and left hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
egocentrism
the young childs belief that everyone sees and experiences the world the way she does
fast-mapping
the ability to categorically link new words to real world referents
overregularization
attachment of regular inflections to irregular words such as the substitution of "goed" for "went"
phonological awareness
children's understanding of the sound patterns of the language they are acquiring
metacognition
knowledge about how mind thinks and the ability to control and reflection one's own thought process
hippocampus
a brain structure that is important in learning
centration
the young childs tendency to think of the world in terms of one variable at a time
conservation
the understanding that matter can change in appearance without changing in quantity
short term storage space
neo-Piagetian theorists Robbie Case's term for the working memory (STSS)
semiotic (symbolic) function
the understanding that one object or behavior can represent another
theory of mind
a set of ideas constructed by a child or adult to explain other peoples ideas, beliefs, desires, and behavior
handedness
a strong preference for using one hand or the other that develops between 3 and 5 years of age
lateralization
the process through which brain functions are divided between the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
preoperational stage
Piagets second stage of cognitive development, during which children become proficient in the use of symbols in thinking and communicating but still have difficulty thinking logically
operational efficiency
a new-Piagetian term that refers to the maximum number of schemes that can be processed in working memory at one time
invented spelling
a strategy young children with good phonological awareness skills use when they write
false belief principle
an understanding that enables a child to look at a situation from aother persons point of view and determine what kind of information will cause that person to have a false belief
metamemory
knowledge about how memory works and the ability to control and reflect on one's own memory function
reaction range
a range, established by one's genes, between upper and lower boundaries for traits such as intelligence; one's environment determines where, within those limits, one will be

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