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Psych Lecture 19


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Posterior Natural boundary of the frontal lobe:
central sulcus
inferior natural boarder of the frontal lobe:
sylvian fissure (lateral fissure)
medial/inferior frontal lobe natural boundary:
corpus callosum
What is the claim about the frontal lobe and being human?
Mediates the abilities that make us human: what sets humans apart from other animals
Human frontal lobes are more __ and __ than other species
elaborate and developed
What is unique about the space of the frontal lobe and humans?
it takes up more space than any other brain area and usually as move up the evolutionary scale the ratio of brain structure to overall size is constant
There is an ___ rise in size for the frontal cortex in humans
How much space of the cortical surface is the frontal cortex?
Frontal cortex is only well developed in __
Frontal cortex develops late in the __ and __ scale
phylogenetic and ontogony
Phylogenetic scale:
evolution of species
ontogony scale:
development of human
Differention of frontal cortex through age __ meaning:
1, parts of the frontal cortex are still subdividing after birth
Maturation of frontal cortex until age __
Mylentation of frontal cortex through __ meaning:
20, connections still forming
William Jones assessed:
distinction between fixed and rigid atainment of a goal and the flexible attainment of a goal
7 major subdivisons of the frontal lobe:
1. primary motor cortex
2. premotor
3. dorsolateral
4. ventrolateral
5. frontopolar
6. orbitofrontal
7. ventromedial

What does the primary motor cortex do?
Posterior portion
Where the motor homonculus is, motor signals generated and sent to the spinal cord and the body
Premotor and contains the __ __ __
anterior to the primary motor cortex that contains the frontal eye fields
Dorsolateral PFC BA:
9 and 46
Ventrolateral PFC BA:
Frontopolar PFC is the __ of the brain
PFC that make up the ventral view:
4 input areas to the premotor area?
1. BA 6: prefrontal area
2. BA 5/7: parietal assoc area
3. BA 8: frontal eye fields
4. BA 44: Broca's Area in LH

What is the premotor used for?
selection, planing of actions and organization of the intention to move
3 area inputs to the Motor Area:
1. BA 4: motor cortex
BA 6: prefrontal areas
3. BA 44: Broca's Area LH

Motor area output to the __ __ and other __ __
spinal cord and other motor structures
Consequence of lesion in the primary motor cortex:
paralysis on contralateral side: cannot move depending on where damage to the motor homonculus is
Lesion to the premotor cortex:
prob sequencing behavior - disorderly movement (apraxia) poor motor planning but not paralysis
The intra connection of the premotor and motor cortex is __ __ and __ __
stimulus directed and voluntary behavior
VOluntary plan is __ ___ and executed by the __ __ and __ __
prefrontal cortex, primary motor and motor cortex
What happened with the monkey and motor and premotor?
Visual cue to prepare movement onset of the premotor cortex
Move cue: onset of motor activity
Monkey dissociation with prep and move cue:
prep cue: premotor activity
Move cue: motor cortex, movement of the hands/limbs will come from motor activity in the motor cortex
The __ and __ of signal will predict how __ movement will be
quality and quanity, accurate
3 prefrontal afferent (inputs)
1. recieves processed from five sensory systems
2. info from the hippocampus (LTM)
3. info from internal physiological and motivational state via limbic system

Why doesnt prefrontal receive from primary sensory system
Doesn't want to be concerned w/ primative visual perception, wants to deal with outcome and not raw material
Prefrontal input from hippocampus allows:
access to past
Prefrontal inputs show that it's the only part of the brain with complete reps of __ and __
external and internal
3 prefrontal efferent (outputs)
1. sends connections back to all sensory systems from which it receives input
2. sends connections to motor structures
3. sends connections to limbic structures

Prefrontal output to the sensory systems allows for what of attn?
Selects what to pay attention to, which modality, decision of switching b/w modalities and changes the strength b/w them
What motor structures does Prefrontal efferent go to?
premotor, basal ganglia, superior colliculus
Prefrontal efferent to limbic structures provides mechanism for 4 things
moducating memory
influencing autonomic fxns
influencing endocrine fxns
Reg of emotional memory

Frontal cortex executive control for __ and __
inhibition and WM
hold in mind a goal or rep of something that is no longer present in the enviornment but stays in the head
Executive control fxn:
inhibition of stimulus bound behavior: select what fits w/ current intentions
4 types of context for executive fxn:
1. task based rules
2. self generated plans
3. social surroundings
4. internal enviornment

executive control for voluntary behavior for ___ appropriate __
contextually, goals
Re-emergence of ___ ___ w/ frontal lobe damage __ tendencies
primative reflexes, irresistable
4 primative reflexes:
1. sucking/rooting
2. Groping
3. Grasping
4. Stimulus Capture

touching of cheek/lip leads to sucking
Involuntary follwing w/ hand or eye of moving object
Grasp Reflex:
grasp object in hand or foot and won't let go
2 parts of stimulus capture:
1. Visual grasp
2. Utilization
Visual grasp:
cannot stop gazing at new thing in the envioronment
Utilization behavior:
pts become reactive to nearby objects, touching them, impulsive tendency to engage w/ object
Without the frontal lobe, behavior becomes __ __
stimulus bound

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