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Psych 210


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Name the lifespan stages.
Infancy 0-2
Early childhood 2-6
Middle childhood 6-12
Adolescence 12-18

Emerging adulthood 18-25
-proposed by Jeffrey Arnett because early adulthood spans from 20-40 years.

Three major issues in developmental psych (underlying)
1) Nature vs. Nurture
2) Continuity vs. Discontinuity
3) Stability vs. Change

Nature vs. Nurture
a. How much is development influences by heredity (nature) and how much by environment (nurture)?

Name one person/group of people on the nature side of the debate and nurture side of debate.
Locke - Tabula rosa/blank slate - nurture

Performationist – everything is set in the sperm – nature

Continuity vs. Discontinuity
Is change a gradual, continuous process or a series of stages?
Give one example of continuous change and one of discontinous change.
Discontinous – butterfly

Continuous – butterfly would progress from smaller butterfly

Stability vs. Change
How much do we change? Do our individual traits persist? Is your personality permanent?

When facing a problem in psych what order do we procede in?

Arnold Gesell
described growth norms n- lifts head, stands up, etc.
John Locke
describe development as environment writing on a “blank tablet”
- Development of species occurs in gradual, continual and adaptive steps
- Natural selection
- Survival of the fittest
- Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny
Ontogeny: development of individual
ii. Phylogeny: development of species
iii. Recapitulate: mimics, is similar

Theories of Developmental Psychology

- biological approach
- developmental change is
qualitative rather than quantitative
ii. unidirectional and irreversible
iii. discontinuous (stage theory)
c. individual is
i. relatively active, constructing a relatively passive environment

Famous People From: organicism/constructivism
- G. Stanley Hall (Darwin of the mind)
- trained excellent developmental psychologists

- Piaget
very good researcher

- Developmental change is
- Qualitative
- Stage like (discontinuous)
- Reversible
- Individual is
- Relatively passive in an active environment

Famous people from: Psychodynamism
- Freud
believed that ontology recapitulate phylogeny
ii. Erikson
1. has one of the very few life-span developments

- Organism = machine
- Developmental change is
- Quantitative
- Additive
- Continuous
- Individual is
- Relatively passive in an active environment
- Developmental change is based on
- Level of stimulation
- Kind of stimulation
- History of organism

Famous people from: Mechanism
- Sir Francis Galton
- eugenics movement is expansion of Darwin’s theory
- J.B. Watson
- Little Albert
- B.F. Skinner
- conditioning

Which group is information processing a part of?
- Individual like society, is continually changing
- Developmental change is not defined in this group
- Individual is
- Active and interactive with active environment

Famous people from: Dialecticism
- Haggle and Marks
- Haggle said that every action has a counteraction
- Less of a link to Darwin here
- Vygotsky and Luria
- child as active learner
- Vygotsky has a short publication period

- Everything happens to organism is dependent on the context in which it happens
Development is:
- Continuous
- Quantitative
- Individual is
- Active in an environment which is very active

Famous people from: Contextualism
William James
- mind continually adapting itself to a changing environment

Albert Bandura
- Bobo doll experiment

Types of Research
Descriptive research

Correlational research

Experimental research

Descriptive research
- observe/record “real” world events
4 types of descriptive research.
- simple enumeration
- counting - example, how many people are schizophrenic
- naturalistic observation - watching - example, go to lazy owl to watch students to see how they act
- case study
- watching - example, watching a particular person example your room mate’s mating habits
- clinical case study
- interruptions - example, you are no longer just watching, it is more controlled, you may interrupt in order to ask questions/interview

Goals of descriptive research

- trying to identify important questions or phenomena that are important to you/your research
- trying to get new research ideas, trying to find variables for your research, etc.
- ethical reasons: might not be able/allowed to do the research in any other way, example is anorexia, you cannot try to induce anorexia on people. Not capable of controlling variables like you would in other research

Problems of descriptive research
- cannot give causal relationships between variables
- it does not explain the phenomena, just gives ideas for what could be causing it

Correlational Research
observe/record concomitant (at the same time) changes in two behaviours, events, characteristics
What is correlational research used for?
- often a preliminary way of looking at phenomena because if you find a correlation it may mean more research is needed
Correlational Coefficient
- r = correlational coefficient ranges from -1 to +1
- there are two things about r that are important the sign and the size
- the actual number means how good the correlation is. A higher number means a stronger correlation. +1 and -1 are equally strong.
- 0 means no correlation which means no relationship

Positive correlation vs. Negative correlation
- positive correlation
- as one variable increases the other increase

- negative correlation
- as one variable increase the other decrease

Correlational Research Types
- example eating tons of chocolate is correlated to increase of weight
- this is the simplest form because we are only looking at two variables
- we can do multi-corrletional research with many more variables

Goals of Correlational Research
- if you come up with an idea that there is a link between two things (find interesting variables) then you look for links between them
- ethical reason, cannot make certain situations occur to do these studies but can do them on already existing variables
- Important Caveat

Experimental research
experimental controls the environment in some way and directly studies the effect on some behaviour, event, characteristic
IVs vs. DVs
- IVs: independent variables
- Things that the researcher controls
- DVs: dependant variables
- Variables that researcher measures

Goal of experimental research
- to determine causation thru direct control/manipulation
Problems of experimental research
- need to control all important variable so you don’t have lurking variables
- completely artificial (get control, lose authenticity)

Research Methods
Cross-sectional design

Longitudinal design

Cross-sectional design
- observe different people at different ages
- can use any of the three types of research talked about above
- you decide what you are going to study and you study groups of people that are based on age. You could study 10 year olds, 30 year olds, 50 year olds. Then you can compare the different age groups to each other.

Advantages of cross-sectional design

- can detect age related differences
- lowest in cost (cost means time and effort as well as money)

Problems of cross-sectional design
- this gives no info about how individuals change or develop, there is variability in individuals but this lumps groups of people together
- assume linearity – assuming that between the two points (between age groups) there is stability!
- Cohort effect. Cohort is a group of individuals who are born at the same time that will have very similar experiences. Example is baby boomers. This makes it impossible to generalize your findings because something specific may have happened to them (they may have been uniquely affected by something that makes the data hard to generalize).

Longitudinal design
- observe same person/group over time
- can have any intervals/ages that you want
- you have multiple testing times, you test them the same way over and over

Advantages of Longitudinal Studies
- we can study individual differences with this type of study
- looking at time-related differences

Problems of Longitudinal Studies
- high cost (takes a long time and lots of effort and money)
- participant mortality – involves death of participants, moving away, withdrawal
- testwiseness – learning how to do well because you have done the test many times
- assume linearity – for an individual this time instead of a group
- cohort effect
- lack of flexibility – have to use the same measures cannot change midway through

Ethical Study: Emma
- bring mother/parent to the study
- classroom setting/familiar setting instead of secluded room
- bite bar - give reasons for using it/rationalise using it
- helmet - make it seem fun, intenna for going into space/make a game
- bribery - can be unethical, be careful (thank you gift)
- not wearing the white lab jacket
- parental consent and informed consent from Emma if possible
- approval from research ethics board
- approval from school board
- principles have to consent
- teachers have to consent
- she is unfamiliar with everything, first day of preschool, doesn’t know anyone/anything (timing of study)
- talk to a child in kid-friendly language
- give child opportunities to leave if they seem like they want to

Ethical Concerns of Research
- informed consent
- voluntary withdrawal
- non-harmful treatment (minimal risk of physical or psychological harm)
- confidentiality (can be breached if there is risk from other, risk to others, or risk to themselves)
- knowledge of results (debriefing)

Stages of prenatal development
- conception
- the period of the zygote
- the period of the embryo (3rd to 8th week)
- prenatal environment
- the period of the fetus (9th to 38th week)

- when a sperm unites with an ovum to form a single cell which eventually becomes the zygote
- do not know exactly when it occurs so everything given is basic timelines

Period of the Zygote
- approximately two weeks, conception to 2nd week
- implantation of the zygote into the uterine wall (needs to occurs for pregnancy thus it is the purpose of the period of the zygote)
- zygote multiplies and travels slowly (towards the uterine wall)
- by the time that it reaches the uterine wall there is enough differentiation to say that there is an inner cell mass and outer cell mass.
- There is growth but the zygote is tiny at this point
- Blastocyst (ball of cells)is a zygote
- Needs to burrow into the uterine wall for nutrients to survive
- One week of traveling to the uterine wall and one week of being in the uterine wall
- Nutrients comes through the umbilical cord to promote growth and takes away waste disposal
- Corion and amniotic sacks help maintain temperature and cushion the baby
- 0.01 inch in first week

Period of the Embryo
- approximately 3rd week to 8th week
- purpose is to form all of the major internal and external structures
- period starts when the blastocyst is firmly in the wall (implantation is complete)
- inner cell mass becomes the embryo
- outer cell mass becomes everything else
- 0.1 inch at 2.5 weeks
- This is a period of rapid change, basically everything will be made just small changes will occur after

At 3 weeks
- trilaminar disk (three layer disk)
- Will become three different sets of body parts
- Ectoderm – skin in charge of senses and nervous system
- Mesoderm – will become the muscles and the circulatory system
- Endoderm – will become internal organs and glands

At 3-4 weeks
- the disk grows a tail, looks like a tadpole
- The heart has developed enough that it can beat and the blood is flowing a little bit.
At 4-6 weeks
- get buds that will become limbs
- also have facial features at this point
At 8-9 weeks
- starts to look more like a human
- Gets the eyes, ears, nose, mouth, fingers, and toes
- The brain is starting to coordinate organ functions
- Skin is sensitive to touch

Consequence of rapid changes in the period of the embryo?
- Most vulnerable period to mutations
- most vulnerable to outside influences/environmental factors (teratogens)
- worst time to drink alcohol, caffeine, aspirin, acne medication, etc.
- Most common time for miscarriages.

Prenatal environment
- the stuff that was surrounding the embryo becomes the amniotic sac and the placenta
- also has umbilical cord
amniotic sac
- fluid that supports support and cushioning for the baby and provides a stable warm constant temperature
- made up of cells from both parties (mother’s cells as well as the embryos)
- For material exchange (primary function)
Umbilical cord
- comes from the baby
- links the embryo to the placenta
- Has blood vessels in it that carry the oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the embryo and then the blood cells carry the waste materials back to the mother

Period of the Fetus
- approximately 9th to 38th week
- purpose: finishing touches, major structures are all in place but are not necessarily working well, gives eyelashes, hair, nails. Growth is the second function.
- 3rd month (approximately 12 weeks): 2 inches by now. 0.2 ounces in weight.
- 9th month: 20 inches long, 7-8 lbs.
- In the last month of the prenatal period, things slow down dramatically because if they went at this rate for the last month you would give birth to a 200 pound baby.

External Changes
- the whole body is growing but the head grows less then the rest of the body
- the skin is very transparent when it is first forming, by the 3rd month the skin is becoming increasingly opaque (like it is for us), it is also getting thicker
- facial features become more human (eyes start on outside of the head but as the head grows it pushes the eyes to the front)
- hair on your head grows in the period of the fetus
- posture changes, becomes more erect (until there isn’t enough room for baby)

Growth of internal organs
- the brain’s organization is set by the period of the fetus
- 100 billion brain cells by the 5th month, embryo/fetus does not have the connection between brain cells
- Kidneys excrete urine by three months of age

Early signs of behaviour

- 3 months: before we see signs of behaviour in the fetus, at this point they form fists and wiggle toes and swallowing (swallow has no functional reason) and they are sensitive to touch
- 4th month: eyes are sensitive to light they turn their heads away (eyes are functional and fetus can control behaviour enough to get away from aversive stimuli)
- 5th month: loud noises will affect the fetus, fetus is awake/asleep, fetus will swim while they still have room
- 7th month: sucking their thumbs or toes (sucking reflex is developing prenatally)

what does the fetus depend on mother for?
- oxygen, nutrients, waste disposal, constant temperature
- if a baby is born early the three worst problems are oxygen, nutrients, and constant temperature

premature babies
- there are medical and cognitive consequences to having very premature babies, we do not talk about extreme premature babies
- All premature babies will be prone to infections (this is the very last thing that is passed on from the mother)
- 2 billion dollars a year to treat premature babies. 21% of babies born before 5 months have moderate to severe health problems and cognitive disabilities.

What do premature babies of 7 and 8 months of age need? (2 months early and 1 month early)
- born at 7 months of age: (2 months early)
- need extra oxygen because lungs are not developed enough to get the oxygen in on their own.
- Need digestive system help (it is only of the last systems to develop) more frequent but smaller doses of food or nutrients.
- Need help with temperature control (incubator)
- Born at 8 months of age: (1 month early)
- Small digestive system problems

- hormonal signal starts things off
- labour and delivery
- over 90% decrease in mortality (for baby and mother during delivery) over the last 100 years
- medical precautions
- especially antibiotics

support for the mother during birth
- usually go through prepared childbirth practices
- emotional support, breathing techniques
- Research was done in 1976 (Tanzer and Block)
- half went to childbirth classes and half did not
- If classes: shorter labours, required fewer drugs (experience less pain), husband being present builds family cohesiveness

Drugs during birth
- Oxytocin
- common drug that was often used during labour
- Used to induce or speed up labour
- Often causes stronger contractions (can contract so tightly that is restricts the umbilical cord and deprives baby of oxygen)
- Babies has lower IQ scores
- Anaesthetics
- epidurals are one type
- Usually is a local anaesthetic now
- Used to give general anaesthetic which delayed motor skills

Stages of Birth
- Stage One (Labour)

- Stage Two (Birth of Baby)

- Stage Three (Placenta)

Stage One (Labour)
- longest (especially in first child)
- purpose is widening the cervix

Stage Two (Birth of the baby)
- Birth
- Contractions (squeezing apple pie filling onto pastry) push fetus down
- Problems occur if contractions squeeze umbilical cord (no air flow to baby)

Stage Three (Placenta)
- Expelling placenta
- Placenta is cells of mother and fetus so foreign materials must also be squeezed out
- Shortest period

- babies have more reflexes than adults do
- provide info about state of CNS (central nervous system)
- it can be used as a diagnostic tool in both adults and infants
- can last thru a lifetime (knee hit)
- should appear on both sides of the body
- many disappear in 1st year

Technical definition of reflexes
- automatic stereotyped response to a specific stimulus
- automatic: cannot stop it
- stereotyped: happens the same way every time

Babies Reflexes
- rooting reflex
- Palmar reflex
- Plantar reflex
- Moro reflex
- Tonic neck reflex
- Stepping reflex

rooting reflex
- these actually occur before the baby is born
- specific stimulus: a light tough on the side of the mouth
- automatic stereotyped response: babies head turns toward the touch and explores with the mouth
- baby is rooting for the nipple to get food
- clear function: to make associated sucking reflex occur. Sucking is voluntary as well as being a reflex. Sucking is a very complex behaviour so she has not simplified it as just a reflex.
- Doesn’t last long, 2-3 months after birth it is gone. Temporary reflex

Palmar reflex
- Specific stimulus: light pressure on the palm of a hand
- Automatic stereotyped response: babies grasp object
- Babies can hang on to an object and be suspended, newborn babies have amazing upper body strength
- Possible function: caveman days, grabbing onto mom for safety
- Disappears in the first 3-4 months of life

Plantar reflex
- Press the pad of the bottom of the foot, human toes will curl
- Twin to palmer
- Last about a year (longer than the palmer)
- Don’t know why we have it or why it lasts longer than the palmar reflex

Moro reflex
- named after a physician
- Everything happens in twos
- Two stimuli, two steps to response
- Stimuli: sudden loss of head support or a sudden loud noise
- 1st step of the response: everything goes outward (arms, legs, etc all spread out) and arching back. 2nd step everything is curled in (fingers, back, etc. curled in)
- Don’t know why it happens

What is the most famous reflex and why?
- moro reflex is the most famous reflex because it is a good indicator of CNS functioning for two reasons
- Can tell us that there has been some very significant brain damage if
- If moro reflex doesn’t occur
- If moro reflex doesn’t disappear at the right time/never goes away (should disappear at 6-7 months)
- If the sound does not elicit it but head support does, could be a hearing problem

Tonic neck reflex
- this one is different in the sense that it is the baby that provides the stimulus
- specific stimulus: baby turns their head
- Response: baby goes into tea-cup position/fencer’s position
- See this prenatally, disappears at 6-7 months
- Function: believed to be related to eye-hand coordination, hand goes out in the direction that you are looking

Stepping reflex
- Specific stimulus: holding a baby up in standing position, works best if they are barefooted on a smooth surface, rock them from side to side
- Response: the babies legs start to move as if they are walking
- Only last 2-3 months (shortest of the newborn reflexes), which makes the function less obvious
- Function could be for learning how to walk but timing seems odd.
- Absent in depressed babies, so another diagnostic test here.

- crying is a congenially organized behaviour because it is under the control of the child (like sucking)
- Important function, survival function, gives food and comfort and takes them away from danger.
- Another diagnostic tool for CNS problems
- Crying brings the caregiver closer to the baby, important for survival and attachment
- Huge individual variability for how long/how much time babies cry? Temperament personality issues are a possibility.

How is crying another diagnostic tool for CNS problems?
- Significantly higher pitch cries can mean brain damaged cry
- Timing patterns can be different than normal
- Premature babies are likely to have different cries, makes babies susceptible to child abuse
- Crack babies, babies born with poor nutrition can both have abnormal cries

Wolff’s cries
- system of dividing into three different kind (there is also a fourth cry)
What are the four types of cries?
- hungry/basic cry
- mad/angry cry
- pain cry
- fake cry

hungry/basic cry
- Clear function, baby is hungry
- Most common cry you will hear

Mad/angry cry
- Cry they use when they are annoyed
Hungry/basic cry vs. mad/angry cry
- can have very small differences
- short to longer bursts
- pitch has gradual onset
- gaps between the cries
- More pressure (air going through) the vocal cords in the mad/angry cry (can hear the up and down)
- More pitch variations in mad/angry

What effects do crying have on adults?
- Crying has a physiological effect on adults, heart rate goes up, we want something to be done about it.
What happens to cries as babies get older?
They become more distinct
Pain cry
- Pain cry is sudden onset
- long burst
- Very distinct from others

Fake cry
- Undistinguishable from hungry/basic cry
- This is just wanting to be held/cuddled by parents
- Within two weeks, newborn babies have this

Categories of Motor Development
- Locomotion/postural development/gross development

- Prehension/fine motor development

Locomotion/postural development/gross development
- Talking about the whole body
- Control of the trunk of the body involved
- Coordination of arms and legs for moving around

Prehension/fine motor development
- Ability to use hands as tools (also feet)
Principles and sequences in motor development
- 2 principles, first applies to gross motor development and the second to fine motor development and gross motor development
- Takes quite a few years to do, think kids on skates at pats games.
- Sequences tends to be similar for everyone.
- If they don’t, it may be something more serious going on

First principle of motor development
- Control over body develops in a cephalocaudal direction
- Cepha: head
- Caudal: legs
- Head to toe
- Example of this is a baby laying on their stomach and cannot lift their head, then can lift chin and then chest (by 3 months) then the belly crawl, creep and pull to stand by furniture (6-9 months) to walk alone (12 months)

Second prinple of motor development
- Development tends to proceed in a proximodistal direction
- From the middle to the extremities
- Examples of this is a newborn baby has the tonic neck reflex/can position themselves towards an object of interest. By two months babies can sweep their hand at an object. By 4 months babies can grab the object but only with the hand. By 6 months of age the fingers start moving around/extend and can control wrist by rotating it. By 9 months, can pick up cheerios with thumb and forefinger. By one year, can pick up a crayon and use it.

Motor development: Super (1981)
- Looking at the Kipsigis in Western Kenya
- They have a cultural belief that gross motor skills need practice to achieve
- If you compare Kipsigis babies to regina babies, they learn how to walk, stand unsupported and sit unsupported than the regina babies would
- The practice that these babies get: put in sitting position in hole in the ground and leave them there.
- As adults they do not sit, stand, etc. any better than us. They just speed up the sequence.

Psychological implications of motor development
- babies are active parts of their environments, they want to move around
- effectance motivation: desire of infant to become effective in action on environment and coping with objects and people in it
- the baby has emotional responses when they accomplish things (example: grabbing a cheerio)
- relationship between learning/cognitive development and motor development
- also has social development involved in it

Benson and Uzgiris (1985) spatial relations
- Babies that are old enough to sit up right and crawl
- Baby sat infront of a very small table
- they would put something very interesting looking into one hollow while the baby is looking and then they cover it up
- Then baby must make it to the other side of the table
- Two conditions: 1)the parent moves the baby 2) the parent motions the baby to the other side of the table
- Are they able to pick out where the toy is?
- The children that moved themselves were the ones who would most often get it.

What is cognition?
- Knowing, thinking, higher mental processes, strategies you use (math problems, etc.)
Piaget’s Four stages of cognitive development
- sensorimotor development (0-2)
- preoperational (2-6)
- concrete operational (6-12)
- formal operational (12+)

Sensorimotor Development
- from ages 0-2
- object permanence
- objects exist independent of our actions
- 6 substages for this period

Stage 1: reflexive schemes
- from 0-1 months
- Scheme: an organized pattern of behaviour and thought
1) exercise (functional assimilation) your scheme
- Use it or loose it (the scheme)
2) Generalization (generalizing assimilation)
- Can use the same action in different situations. Ex. you can suck on a nipple or on a blanket
3) discrimination (recognitory assimilation)
- Even though you can generalize it to different things you can still discriminate it ex. you go to the nipple if you are hungry
- Babies are basic beings, object permanence not an issue

Stage 2: primary circular reactions
- from 1-4 months
- Circular reactions are repetitive and reinforcing it will help you do it even more. Similar to use it or loose it.
- Activation of simple, reflexive schemes lead by chance to satisfying result. (he didn’t know that babies suck on their thumbs in the womb)
- Infant attempts repeat satisfying result by trial-and-error
- Scheme is body centered and much more complex
- Object permanence: if they cannot see the object then it does not exist. No out of sight, out of mind.

Stage 3: secondary circular reactions
- from 4-9 months
- your world wider
- Object concept is the same as object permanence.
- Object permanence: in stage 3 babies still loose interest in the toy once it is hidden but have glimpses of maybe remembering.

5 pieces of evidence that the child might still understand in stage 3
- Transparent barrier
- Baby still looks, still reaches
- If part of object is still visible
- Baby still reaches
- Out of sight, out of mind
- If object is completely hidden then they completely forget about it (negative evidence against it)
- Magic trick
- When something just poof its gone they don’t even care (negative evidence against it)
- Even if the baby actually has their hand on the object but it is covered then they drop and forget (negative evidence against it)

Stage 4: coordination of secondary schemes
- from 8-12 months
- Novel coordination of schemes in a means-end way
- If you show them an object but they cannot get there they try and find ways to get it to themselves.
- Object competence = object permanence
- Object permanence: still don’t quite have it but they are getting closer
- When they hold it and its covered they now still know its there

A-not-B (visible displacement) error
- stage 4 still shows this
- You show them the dog, cover it, they lift the towel and get it (seems like object permance)
- You show them dog, cover it, then take it out and put it under place B (while they are watching) they still only look under the towel.
- So they do not quiet have object permanence

Stage 5: tertiary circular reactions
- from 12 to 18 months
- Not using objects to get things, we are interested in the objects themselves
- Interest in properties of objects, independent of self
- Being a little scientist (exploring/experimenting)
- Object permanence: so so close but not there yet
- Problem is the invisible displacement error
- A not B except they didn’t see you move it this time
- Don’t get it even if you had just shown them previously

Stage 6: beginning of representational thought
- from 18 to 24 months
- Symbolic thought: representing actions, things, or events internally and (internally) manipulating those actions, things, or events.
0 Can vision or car in your mind if it is not infront of you. You can manipulate it by imagining it with the doors open, moving, etc.
- Object permanence: YES!

Temperament vs. Personality
- temperament is a subtopic of personality that is used for infants (there is still temperament for adults)
- temperament includes emotional expressiveness and babies responsiveness to world around them
- personality: includes variables such as beliefs, attitudes, and values

Three types of temperament: (Thomas and Chess)
- not all kids fit into one of these categories neatly
- massive studies have been done, also cross-cultural
- easy going (40%)
- difficult (10%)
- slow to warm up (15%)
- Where are the other 35% of babies? They do not fit in here. They do not form their own groups or sub-groups; they are a mixture of these.

Easy Goin Babies
- regularity – they have regular eating and sleeping schedule. Thus there is predictability.
- interested - in the world around them, new things, new people, new experiences. They are also open to new experiences.
- Adaptability – when certain experiences frighten them they can adapt to them quickly.
- Medium – not extreme in their moods. Still get angry and still get happy but do not go over the top with it.
- Happy – in general their mood is a positive one.

Difficult Babies
- Almost the polar opposite to the easy going baby
- They are interested in things that they are comfortable with but they are not interested in new things
- Irregular – they have no sleeping and eating patterns.
- Not Adaptable – do not adapt well, uncomfortable in new situation, get very upset in new situations.
- Criers – cry more than easy babies. Tend to be more negative than positive in moods.
- More extreme – have extreme moods.

Slow to warm up babies
- Low activity levels
- Often unwilling to be around new people or new situations, change resistant, but they eventually adapt and will warm up to the person or situation
- Medium moods – no extremes
- No overall mood for this group. Some are more happy and some are more negative.

Personality definition
- Personality: individual’s characteristics pattern of thinking, feeling and acting.
- personality is much more complex than temperament

Freud’s psychodynamic theory of personality: Psychosexual Stages of Development
- Freud only went to the end of adolescence
- “Innately determined stages of sexual development which shape our personality”
- Different parts of the body are associated with pleasure at different stages
- oral
- anal
- phallic
- latency
- genital

- life force gives you pleasure, just like the ID.
- The source of pleasure that feeds the life force is different at every stage.
- occurs in a stage if you either get too much or too little pleasure
- You need just enough libido at each stage so that you still have enough at the final stage
- if you don’t have enough you will get stuck at a stage

Oral stage
- from 0-18 months
- this doesn’t take us to the end of infancy
- erogenous zone: mouth
- seek pleasure through the mouth
- feeding, sucking, making sounds are ways of getting pleasure
- too much/too little pleasure: fixation occurs
- too little: overly dependant on others
- too much: very hostile person, your hostility would manifest itself by giving you biting, sarcastic humour

- Psychosocial Theory
- was a nanny for a couple that was studying with Freud, he would talk to them about Freud and he became a fan of Freud’s
- person/child’s interactions with others have a profound influence on development
- he never broke off with Freud, just added another layer to Freud’s work

8 psychosocial stages of development
- made by erikson
- last 3 stages are early, middle and late adulthood, first 5 follow Freud’s five stages
- development from birth to death
- claims that there is a crisis at each stage (non sexual)
- each crisis can have a positive or negative outcome
- in each stage good and bad things will happen, for a positive outcome there is more positive than negative (not that all experiences are positive)

Stage 1: Basic Trust vs. Basic Mistrust
- from 0-1 years
- the positive vs. the negative
- hopefully by the end of this stage you will trust others
- goal of this stage: to acquire a positive ratio of trust vs. mistrust
- babies must trust in other people to meet their needs (survival, comfort, etc.), they build trust in others taking care of them
- mistrust: (need a little bit) babies know that their needs wont always be met in seconds
- corresponds to Freud’s oral stage

Overall points about trust vs. mistrust stage
- we need to have babies who know that their parents will give them good quality care.
- Quality vs. quantity care
- Erikson said that the biggest issue was the love while you were having your needs responded to (it was the quality of care)
- Need mistrust
- Need kids to know that some people can be trusted and some people cannot be trusted. Setting kids up to not walk away with a stranger.
- Do not want to much mistrust
- If there is too much mistrust you have a negative outcome to the stage what is going to happen is that you will withdraw from people.

- strong, affectional tie we feel for special people in our lives
- different than love
Early Theories of Attachment


Psychoanalysts take on attachment
- feeding as primary key to forming this bond, whoever feeds you is the one who you make the attachment with
- thus, the attachment is completely dependent on the mother
- they said that the baby has no influence on this attachment, if the attachment is bad it is the mothers fault

Behaviourists take on attachment
- had no respect for the psychoanalysts
- they focused on behaviours that you can actually see
- believed that attachment behaviours are learned

2 sub-theories of attachment
Drive reduction model

Operant conditioning model

note: the end product of both of these theories is the same, breast feeding!

Drive reduction model
- Primary drives vs. secondary drives
- Primary drives: survival drives, the need for sleep, food, water, sex, etc.
- Secondary drives: learned drives, the need for shoes, vacuum cleaners, money, etc.
- Born with only primary drives
- For babies: primary drive is hunger and the secondary drive is mom. You learn to associate food with your mother because she is the one that always feeds you. But mostly, you associate her with good things in general.

Operant Conditioning Model
- Focus on positive reinforcement.
- Babies are positively reinforced by their moms because they feed them.
- Mother also gets positive reinforcement because the baby is happy to see them.
- The baby plays a role in this attachment

Harry Harlow’s research
- Goal: to test the drive reduction theory
- He ended up testing all three hypotheses in one go because they are all about breast feeding.

What happens to the rhesus monkey’s after the experiments?
- None of these babies turned out normally
- They either avoided other monkeys or got in lots of fight
- couldn’t have sex and when they did, all the females rejected their babies

- Ethological Theory of Attachment
- relationships have survival value because they bring nurturance to the infant
- relationships built and maintained by creating and sustaining proximity between child and parent
- taking his own approach to it

Mary Ainsworth
- took Bowlby’s work and came up with the Strange Situation
- Hallmark of finding out the quality of the relationship that a baby has with their caregiver
- Based on belief that attachment best observed when child is placed in a stressful environment

Strange Situation
- Need a one way mirror, or some way to observe the baby
- Babies must be 12 months or older
- Babies comes into lab with their primary caregiver. The baby is taken into a strange environment (toys etc.)
- Suddenly, a stranger comes into the room and then mom sneaks out while the baby is not watching
- See how baby reacts when they realize that mom is not there anymore
- Then see how the baby reacts when the mother comes back (more important – provides most useful information)
- Then bring in another stranger and the mother walks out while the baby is watching. Check the same two things again.
- Findings: (no clear link between temperament and attachment)

Types of attachment found in strange situation model
Securely attached child (60%)

Insecurely attached child (30%)
- avoidant attachment (20%)
- resistant attachment (10%)

Securely attached child (60%)
- Typically anytime the mom leaves the room (when they see it or not) the baby becomes distressed
- When mom comes back (regardless of they left) the baby is like “that was scary, I didn’t like it but I’m so happy to see you, what a relief” They get over it pretty quick.

Avoidant attachment (20%)
- Do not react to the mother leaving.
- When the mother returns, the baby is not happy or relieved.

Resistant Attachment (10%)
- Upset when the mother leaves
- Not relieved when the mother comes back, they stay just as upset

Characteristics of securely attached children
- cognitive competence, tend to be better problem solvers, tend to be more curious about the world, more exploratory, thus they learn more.
- Social competence, tend to be more obedient, tend to be more cooperative, get along better with their peers, may be more secure in attaching with a romantic partner.
- Less frequent emotional/behavioural problems.
- Long term impact: if your first bond/bonds are secure, it sets you up for many more secure bonds.

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