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Psych ch 8


undefined, object
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mental activity such as thinking or representing information
a mental representation that has some of the physical characteristics of an object; it is analgous to the object
analogical representation
an abstract mental representation that does not correspond to the physical features of an object or idea
symbolic representation
a mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes
the idea that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of a category
defining attribute model
an approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others
prototype model
a form of reasoning in which logic is used to draw a specific conclusion from given premises
deductive reasoning
a form of reasoning in which we develope general rules after observing specific instances
inductive reasoning
in problem solving, shortcuts used to minimize the amount of thinking that must be done when moving from step to step in a solution space
making a decision based on the answer that most easily comes to mind
availability heuristic
a rule for categorization based on how similar the person or object is to our prototypes for that category
representativeness heuristic
a tendency to search for and believe evidence that fits our existing views
confirmation bias
the effect of presentation on how information is perceived
the realization of a solution to a problem
a new way of thinking about a problem that aids its solution
a problem solving strategy that has worked in the past
mental set
a tendency in problem solving to think of objects only as they are most commonly used
functional fixedness
the human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, understand complex ideas, learn quickly, and adapt to environmental challenges
an assessment of a child's intellectual standing relative to that of their peers; determined by comparison of the childs test score with the average score from children of each chronological age
mental age
the number computed by dividing a child's estimated mental age by the child's chronological age, and then multiplying this number by 100
intelligence quotient (IQ)
the idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities
general intelligence (g)
information processing in novel or complex circumstances
fluid intelligence
knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use that knowledge
crystalized intelligence
the idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains
multiple intelligences
a form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions
emotional intelligence (EQ)

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