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Psych 300 Final


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involves operationalizing variables
naturalistic observation
meets descriptive goals
descriptive goals
ex. narratives, DSMIV criteria, naturalistic observation
goal of understanding
ex. CAUSES of attitude change
systemic observer error
caused by telling your assistant what you are proving
descriptive stats vs. inferential stats
descriptive = summary
inferential = hypothesis testing
quasi experiment
done when you went to make a causal inference of the effect of the IV on the DV but can't control many of the variables
-is the covariation between naturally occuring variables
-measured by surveys
if you can make a causal inference, what kind of validiity do you have?
Internal validity
internal consistency reliability
consistency of items in a multi item scale as shown as the average of correlation.
What does representativeness allow you to do?
generalize your findings
natural groups design looks like one thing but actually is another. What are these things?
natural grps design looks experimental but is correlational
features of repeated groups design
-more sensitive
-can involve practice effects
longitudinal studies good for..
measuring change in an individual
differential transfer
manipulation in one condition carries over
ceiling effect
dependent variable reaches a maximum
what is the major threat to sucessive indep samples?
nonrepresentative successive sampling
parallel lines on a graph means
no interaction
a circle on a graph means
correlation value of zero
If a prof is teaching a class 2x per day, and uses an experimental technique in only one of the classes, what is the problem with his experiment?
intact groups
definition of interaction
effects of one IV on the DV
differs depending upon the level of another IV
*ceiling effect of floor effect*
make you conclude that an INTERACTION exists when it doesn't
placebo controls are used to minimize
demand characteristics
double blind controls are used to minimize
experimenter effects
Natural groups IV
ex.participants peronality (introvert/extrovert)
Random groups IV
ex. level of arousal (ie high, medium, or low caffine)
advantages of case study method (5)
-develop hypotheses
-tenative evidence
-evidence against a theory
-useful for studying rare event
-useful for trying new intervention
disadvantages of case study method (5)
-oberver bias
-experimenter effects
-very limited internal validity
-limited external validity
-incomplete methods
ways to strengthen case studies (3)
-use several ways of data collection
-conuduct multiple case studies, either by replication of by finding cases that vary on IV (to see DV effects) or cases varying on DV (to see IV effects).
-expand a case study with intervention to a single case experiment or interrupted time series design
explanations for lack of return to baseline in ABAB (reversal) design (3)
-effect of treatment remains even after it is withdrawn
-confounding variable caused the effect, not the treatment
-new variables might emerge to effect the behavior (ie, behavior becomes self-reinforcing)
definition of multiple baseline design
-establish multiple baselines of a behavior,usually in diff settings
-introducte treatment in one setting at a time
What evidence supports the effects of treatment in a multiple baseline design? (2)
- baseline remains stable in a setting before treatment applied in that setting
-behavior changes as predicted after treatment applied to that setting
Does a quasi experiment involve random assignment to conditions?
Does a quasi experiment have a control group?
No, but sometimes a pseudo control, called a "comparison group" is used.
Does a quasi experiment involve a change in an IV?
Quasi Experiments
-include an intervention (change in IV)
-no control, but comparison grp
-no random assigmnemt
-scarce control of potentially confounding variables
How do quasi experiments handle the dependent variable?
Quasi exper include measures of the dependent variables taken after (and possibly before) the intervention).
A threat to internal validity in which:
-an event is confounded with treatment
-ex. Hawthorne effect
-History =Could something else have happened at the same time to cause the effect?
-A threat to internal validity in which natural changes occur in the participants over time.
-If maturation occurs, you'll see a gradual change in both exper & psedo controls
-threat to internal validity in which taking a pretest effects the posttest.
-If you don't see a change in the comparison group from pre-to post-, it's probably not an issue.
-threat to internal validity in which measurement instruments change over time.
Two categories of Quasi experimental design
1. nonequivalent control group design (with or without pretest)
2. interrupted time series design
-A threat to internal validity in which extremem scores on the pre-test are less extreme on the post-test.
If you pick the sample on the basis of extreme scores, what problem are you likely to have?
Regression to the mean
A threat to internal validity in which there are differences between the treatment and comparison group due to lack of random assignment
- If there's no comparison group, selection will not be an issue.
-Selection is a big problem in nonequivalent grps design, both with and without pretest.
Are the threats a problem for internal or external validity?
Threats cause you to believe that:
the intervention has an effect when it doesn't
the intervention does not have an effect when it does
Threats cause you to believe that: the intervention has an effect when it doesn't
Most plausible threats to a One-group pretest posttest design (O1 * O2)
history, testing, mortality
Interaction of selection with other threats....
only happens when you have 2 grps (I'm assuming experimental and comparison).
Least plausible threats for one grp pretest/post test design.
maturation, instrumentation, selection, interaction of selection with other threats
Most plausible threats to a nonequivalent control grp w/out pretest
history (not as a main effect but as selection by history), *selection* (be/c 2 grps here), mortality.
selection is a prob be/c of random assignment but it can only occur when...
2 groups exist (like in nonequivalent control grps designs).
Least probable threats to int validity in a nonequiv control grp w/out pretest
maturation, testing (no be/c there's no pretest), regression, mortality won't be a prob if people don't leave differentially
The "testing" threat to int validity is only a major threat when...
A pretest and post test exist.
If people in the treatment grp leave in greater numbers than the comparison grp, the threat that is a prob is...
If you choose groups based on their feelings about a subject, the threat to int validity that exists could be..
Regression to the mean
The most plausible threat(s) in a non-equivalent control group with pretest are...
The least plausible threats to a non-equivalent control grp with pretest?
selection (as long as the grps are similar on the pretest measure), maturation (be/c you'd see an effect in control and comparison if this occurs), mortality
Interupted time series
-quasi experiment that looks like a simple baseline design
-many measures of dv, treatment, and then more dv measures
What are the major threats to interupted time series designs?
history and instrumentation
What are the least plausible threats to an interrupted time series design?
maturation, testing, regression are not threats because they would not explain the abrupt discontinuty often present
SELECTION does not apply to an interupted time series design because there are not two grps
Which threat is the interrupted time series with nonequiv control grp design unique in reducing? Why
history. History threat is reduced with this design because an event that effects both groups cannot be responsible for the treatment effects
What are the four questions in program evaluation?
N. Poe
Label this question of program eval:
Is the program meeting the needs of the people that it serves?
Label this question of program eval:
Is the program being implemented as planned?
Label this question of program eval:
Has the program met its goals?
Label this question of program eval:
Is the program cost-efficient relative to alternative programs?
What type of testing would be used to eval needs?
What type of testing would be used to eval process?
What type of testing would be used to eval outcome?
experiment or quasi experiment
What type of testing is used to evaluate efficiency?
experiment or quasi experiment
nomothetic approach
an approach to research that seeks to establish broad generalizations or laws that apply to large groups (populations) of individuals; the average, or typical, performance of the group is established
idiographic approach
general laws plus individual uniqueness
-scientific revolutions are due to anomolies that accumulate during normal science
-theory, concept, method
using recording equipment in observational research can do one of two things (or both). What are they?
1.It may help deal with observer bias
2. may only postpone the prob
data vs. results
data= responses of individual participants, issues of confidentiality are important here
results=summary of data from which conclusions are drawn
Examples of direct observational methods
1.w/out intervention
1.naturalistic observation
2.participant observation, structured observation, field experiment
Examples of indirect observational methods
1. physical traces
-use traces=unintended
2.archival records
Biases in archival records-
selective deposit vs. selective survival
deposit = prob in production
survival = upkeep
knowledge of being observed affects behavior.
People use demand cues to guide their behavior
solns to reactivity (4)
1. allow participants to adapt to observer
2.use unobtrusive meas where the researcher isn't present
3. used disguised participant observation
4. conceal the observer
observer bias
Systematic error due to observer expectations
ie, you're more likely to notice behaviors that you expect
solns to oserver bias
1. automatic recording equipment
2. awareness of possible bias
3. blind observers who are not aware of the hypothesis.
If the goal of your research is to describe, what kind of design will you use?
observational or survey
If the goal of your research is to predict, what kind of design will you use?
correlational design
If the goal of your research is to understand, what kind of design will you use?
experimental or quasi-experimental design
Reliability vs. Validity
reliability= consistency of measures across time (test-retest reliab) and items (internal reliability)
validity = measure assesses what is intended convergently (correlates w/ other measures of construct) and divergently (correlates poorly with unrelated measures)
Survey resesarch can be used to describe or predict. What are the three types of survey research designs?
1. cross sectional - can't asses change be/c done at one time
2. sucessive independent samples - cross sections of diff samples; describes changes in a population
3. longitudinal design- same sample over time; describes individuals. It is the best way to asses change but people may drop out, responses may be artificially consistent, takes time and can be expensive.
True experiments include...(5 things)
1. 2 conditions
2. random assignment
3. control of extraneous variables
4. measure effects on DV
5. must have 1 IV w/ 2 levels & 1 DV.
There are three requirements for internal validity. What are they?
1. elimination of alternative causes
2. IV before DV (time order relationship)
3. Covariation (DV varies w/ IV)
3 types of indep groups design
1. random grps design
2. matched grps design
3. nat'l groups - based on individual diff variable, not a true experiment
Repeated measures are ____ ___ designs and indep grps designs are ____ ____ designs.
repeated = within
indep = between
advantages of repeated measures designs
1. requires fewer participants, so more efficient
2. more sensitive
disadvantages of repeated measures designs
1.can't be used if differential transfer occurs
2. practice effects (ANY change over trials)
2 X 2 represents
2 factor design
2 IVs?
4 conditions
two main effects - effect of each IV on DV
1 interaction - effect on one IV depends upon the level of the other IV
How to id a main effect
main effects
-represent the effects of each IV considered seperately
-effect of a single IV on a DV
How to identify an interaction effect
Interaction effects:
-occur when the effect of one IV on the DV differs depending on the level of another IV
-"both IVs have an effect" is NOT an interaction

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