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Psych 346 - exam2


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Learned nonsense syllables to "criterion" to measure learning.
Measured SAVINGS in relearning.
Don Juan Poem
Compared with Ebbinghaus nonsense syllables,took 1/10th the time to learn. Shows meaning and organization have a HUGE impact.
Total-time Hypothesis
More time spent on initial learning, less time needed to re-learn
Distributed Practice
Important exception to Total-time hypothesis. Why? consolidation, multiple contexts, more attention.
Long-term sensitization
increased # connections between sensory and motor neurons
Wagner et al. and distributed practice
Faster responses for recently repeated items. (and less brain activity)
-Shows long lag is best, pay more attention second time and boosts memory.
Inter-trial rest interval
Idea that distributed practice reduces fatigue between trials?
-tested by rotor task, not due to motor fatigue.(watching had same effect as doing)
Inter-item repetition lag
Micro-distribution of practice. More distance between presentations is better.
Generation effect
Better long term memory if you generate the answer yourself vs having it given to you.
Mere exposure effect
prior exposure increases positive feelings
Expanded retrieval
-Greater vs smaller spacing
For studying, greater spacing is better.
For testing, smaller spacing if better for greater reinforcement of correct answers.
Continuing to practice once learned once.
Why its helpful:The more repetitions, the less time needed to relearn it.
Conditioning (effective vs ineffective ways)
Classical conditioning- delay between CS and US

Ineffective: simultaneous conditioning and backward conditioning.

Trace conditioning
Hippocampally mediated conditioning where US occurs after CS has finished. (no overlap)
Trace conditioning and coma patients
Coma patients showed eye muscle response while anesthetized patients didn't.
Evidence of consciousness
1.Positive reinforcement
2.Negative reinforcement
3.Positive punishment
4.Negative punishment

1. add desired stimulus
2. remove undesired stimulus
3. add punishment
4. take away reward

Most durable schedule of reinforcement
Variable ratio
Brain regions for implicit and explicit
Implicit: Caudate
Explicit: Medial temporal lobe
Implicit/Explicit cooperate when..

Compete when..

Beginning to learn a new task

probability learning

Consolidation effects
Taking a nap right after studying is best.
Circadian influences
During "peak off" times implicit memory is better because explicit is no longer interfering.
Left vs Right PFC
Left for words, right for nonverbal
exception to the fact that most hippocampal patients cannot form new semantic memories.
Jon and Beth
Repetition priming and semantic priming
Item itself is repeated, related information influences activation (environment can influence too)
Whats wrong with heirarchal view?
Familiarity matters more than distance, typicality effects (penguin as a bird)
Semantic Priming: related, unrelated, nonword
Probes with related primes are verified more rapidly
TOT tip of tounge
have a word that sounds like the one we want, but other sounds are activated so it’s harder to get to the word you want.
Left lateral temporal
Important for words. (need to know for surgery
distributed + "hub"
Hub activates attributes then focus on task-related pieces.
Whorfian hypothesis
Language determines perceptions and representations
Brain organization: lower level processing
Good evidence for color form motion, somewhat heirarchal
How does brain organization explain activation?
Neurons that fire together, wire together (personal experiences
Learning new concepts: Consistent, Hybrid, varied
Consistent: all examples about one context (concrete)
Hybrid: First examples from same context then differs
Varied: all examples from different context (abstract)

5 Relations to executive function
1. attention and inhibition
2. task management
3. Planning
4. Monitoring
5. Coding
-help overcome schemas when inappropriate

Ebbinghaus vs Bartlett
E focused on narrow issues and ignored real world memory.
B studied recall of complex behavior, stressed effort after meaning.
Repetition worked for what stimuli?
stimuli that needed to be learned from scratch
Gestalt and memory
insightful learning (adding 3 to numbers) lasts longer than rote memorization
Subjective organization
distort details to fit schema.
Camicheals effect
organized material depends more on how you need to retrieve it, not how it was organized.
3 characteristics of skilled memory
1. encode meaningfully
2. attach retrieval cues to structure
3. Becomes faster with practice

LOP more semantic, "deeper" is better memory
TAP semantic only better if tested on meaning, important match between how you learned and how you'll be tested
London taxi drivers vs bus drivers
hippocampal differences,
Cost: harder to make other associations, and when stop training the structure shrink compared with controls.
Turving study of processing
showed no difference in performance between repeat and non repeat conditions
Fail to reach semantic level.. three reasons
1. nature of material
2. limited processing capacity
3. task demands

Divided attention
Harder secondary task reduced activation during encoding= more impairment
Craik on primacy
do meaning based for initial words, shows why divided attention reduces primacy effect
Negative recency
worst at recalling end of list later on because never thought of meaning
Three assumptions of sensory-functional theory
1. Living things are distinguished form each other mainly on the basis of their visual or
perceptual properties
2. Nonliving things are distinguished from each other mainly on the basis of their
functional properties
3. There are three times as many visual units within the semantic system as there are
function units

relations vs distinctiveness
- more possible cues to get to item
-distinguish correct from competitors
State effects
Only affect recall not recognition.
-state serves as a cue.
mood-dependence vs mood-congruence
-match mood at encoding and retrieval as a cue
-Mood biases what you recall
Cognitive context- bilingual study
memories from same linguistic context.
-Bilinguals have two language modes
Familiarity vs recollection
both like google:
-strength and recency
-fit between cue and target

quantitative vs qualitative
give people instructions for when they should remember or know something
remember= specific details
know=without details

Receiver operating characteristics graph
familiarity gives curved lines
recollection straightens the line
-when you put them together on a graph, whichever way the graph is still distorted that aspect has a larger contribution

Jacoby: process dissociation procedure
tease apart true results from contamination
-study was famous and nonfamous names. first said list was famous people and then said it was a mistake and was nonfamous, could subjects remember list?
Process dissociation procedure: inclusion vs exclusion
-names you read before ARE famous
-names you read before ARE NOT famous
Incidental encoding on colored words
Brain does know difference between recollection and familiarity.
Rhinal cortex= familiarity!
hippocampus and parahippocampus increase recollections!

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