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Ch. 7-12 i/o psychology


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accident proneness
the idea that some people have personality traits that predispose them to have accidents, and that most accidents are caused by or involve these same few people. This theory is not supported by research.
Achievement motivation
the theory of motivation that emphasizes the need to accomplish something, to do a good job, and to be the best.
Authoritarian leadership
leadership style in which a leader makes all decisions and tells followers what to do.
a stress-reducing technique that involves electronic monitoring of physiological processes, such that people can learn to control muscle tension, blood pressure, and brain waves
a formal, orderly, and rational approach to organizing business enterprises
a condition of job stress that results from overwork
Carpal tunnel syndrome
– a repetitive motion disorder that may involve numbness; tingling; or pain in fingers, hands, and forearms.
Change agents
– organization development facilitators who work with business groups to implement change and develop group confidence and effectiveness.
Charismatic leadership
– a leadership style characterized by a self-promoting personality, a high energy level, and a willingness to take risks. This type of leader stimulates their followers to think independently
Consideration leadership functions
– leadership behaviors that involve awareness of and sensitivity to the feelings of subordinates.
Contingency theory
– a leadership theory in which a leader’s effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader’s personal characteristics and the characteristics of the leadership situation.
Democratic leadership
– a leadership style in which a leader and followers discuss problems and make decisions jointly.
EAP stands for
– employee assistance programs (short)
Employee assistance programs (EAPs)
– counseling and rehabilitative services for various employee problems, notably alcohol and drug abuse.
Environmental psychology
– the study of the effect of workplace design on behavior and attitudes.
Equity theory
– the theory of motivation that states that our motivation on the job is influenced by our perception of how fairly we are treated.
– a system of flexible working hours combining core mandatory work periods with elective work periods at the beginning and end of the workday
Goal-setting theory
– the theory of motivation based on the idea that our primary motivation on the job is defined in terms of our desire to achieve a particular goal.
Group cohesiveness
– the focus, closeness, and commonality of interests of a small work group.
– a personality variable that may explain individual differences in vulnerability to stress. So-called hardy persons believe they can control the events in their lives and thus may be more resistant to stress.
Implicit leadership theory
– a leadership theory that describes a good leader in terms of one’s past experiences with different types of leaders.
Initiating structure leadership functions
– leadership behaviors concerned with organizing, defining, and directing the work activities of subordinates.
Job congruence
– the match between our abilities and the requirements of our jobs.
Job engagement
– the true enjoyment of work, characterizing people who score high in energy, involvement, and efficacy.
Job enrichment
– an effort to expand the scope of a job to give employees a greater role in planning, performing, and evaluating their work.
Job satisfaction
– our positive and negative feelings and attitudes about our jobs.
Job simplification
– the reduction of manufacturing jobs to the simplest components that can be mastered by unskilled or semiskilled workers.
Job-characteristics theory
– the theory of motivation that states that specific job characteristics lead to psychological conditions that can increase motivation, performance, and satisfaction in employees who have a high growth need.
Leader-member exchange
– a leadership theory that focuses on how the leader-follower relationship affects the leadership process.
Locus of control
– one’s belief about the source of one’s rewards. People with an internal locus of control believe that job performance, pay, and promotion are under their control and dependent on their own behavior. People with an external locus of control believe such events depend on outside forces such as luck.
Mass psychogenic illness
– a stress-related disorder manifested in a variety of physical symptoms that spread rapidly among a group of workers; popularly called assembly-line hysteria.
Mass psychogenic illness is also called
– assembly-line hysteria is also called
Merit pay
– a wage system in which pay is based on level of performance.
Motivator-hygiene theory
– the theory of motivation that explains work motivation and job satisfaction in terms of job tasks and workplace features.
motivator-hygiene theory is also called
- two-factor theory is also called
Needs hierarchy theory
– the theory of motivation that encompasses physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization needs.
Negative affectivity
– a personality dimension characterized by a generalized life and job dissatisfaction and by a focus on negative aspects of life events.
Nominal working hours
– the prescribed number of hours employees are supposed to spend on the job; not all of these hours are actually spent performing job tasks.
Occupational health psychology
– the field of study dealing with the health effects of job stress and other aspects of employee well-being.
OD is
– organizational development (short)
Organizational culture
– the organization’s pattern of beliefs, expectations, and values as manifested in company and industry practices.
Organizational development (OD)
– the study and implementation of planned organizational changes.
Organization-based self-esteem
– a personality dimension relating to our assessment of our adequacy and worth with regard to our place in the employing organization.
Path-goal theory
– a leadership theory that focuses on the kinds of behaviors leaders should exercise to allow their subordinates to achieve personal and organization goals.
Person-organization fit
– the congruence between an employee’s values and the organization’s values.
Prosocial behavior
– behaviors directed toward supervisors, co-workers, and clients that are helpful to an organization.
Protective exclusion
– the practice of barring certain groups of employees, such as women of childbearing age, from potentially hazardous jobs because of fear of lawsuits.
Pygmalion effect
– a self-fulfilling prophecy in which managers’ expectations about the level of their employees’ job performance can influence that performance.
Quality-of-work-life (QWL) program
– organizational programs based on active employee participation in decision and policy making.
QWL is
– quality of work life (short)
Relaxation training
– a stress-reduction technique that concentrates on relaxing one part of the body after another.
Role ambiguity
– a situation that arises when job responsibilities are unstructured or poorly defined.
Role conflict
– a situation that arises when there is disparity between job demands and the employee’s personal standards.
Scientific management
– a management philosophy concerned with increasing productivity that regarded workers as extensions of the machines they operated.
Self-managing work groups
– employee groups that allow the members of a work team to manage, control, and monitor all facets of their work, from recruiting, hiring, and training new employees to deciding when to take rest breaks.
Social loafing
– the idea that people do not work as hard in a group as they do when working alone.
– the adjustment process by which new employees learn their role in the organizational hierarchy, their company’s values, and the behaviors considered acceptable by their work group.
– physiological and psychological responses to excessive and usually unpleasant stimulation and to threatening events in the environment.
Theory X
– This theory approach to management assumes that people are lazy and dislike work and therefore must be led and directed.
Theory Y
– this theory assumes that people find satisfaction in their work and function best under a leader who allows them to participate in working toward both personal and organizational goals.
Total quality management (TQM)
– participative management programs characterized by increased employee involvement and responsibility.
TQM is
– total quality management (short)
Transactional leadership
– a leadership style that focuses on the social interactions between leaders and followers, based on followers’ perceptions of and expectations about the leader’s abilities.
Transformational leadership
– a leadership style in which leaders are not constrained by their followers’ perceptions but are free to act to change or transform their followers’ views.
Type A/B personalities
– personality patterns related to one’s ability to tolerate stress
Type A personality
– persons have been associated with heart disease, anger, hostility, time urgency, and depression.
Type B personality
– persons may work as hard as Type As but shower few stress effects.
Valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory (VIE)
– the theory of motivation that states that people make choices that are based on their perceived expectations that certain rewards will follow if they behave in a particular way.
VIE is
– valence-instrumentality-expectancy (short)
Wage-incentive systems
– the primary pay system for production workers, in which the more units produced, the higher the wage.
Work overload
– too much work to perform in the time available or work that is too difficult for the employee to perform.
Work underload
– work that is too simple or insufficiently challenging for one’s abilities.
– so-called addiction to work because of anxiety and insecurity or because of a genuine liking for the job.
_____ of all new companies fail within two years.
The ______ is concerned with satisfying employees' personal growth needs.
*Human Relations Approach
_____ holds that people dislike work and need strong, directive leadership
*McGregor's Theory X
_____ suggests that leader effectiveness is determined by the interaction between the leader's personal characteristics and aspects of the situation
*contingency theory
_____ focuses on the interaction among a leader's cognitive resources, job performance, and behaviors leaders should exercise.
*Path-goal theory
Four styles of leadership under path-goal theory are
directive, supportive, participative, and charasmatic.
directive leadership
the leader tells subordinates what they should do and how they should do it.
supportive leadership
the leader shows concern and support for subordinates
participative leadership
the leaders allows subordinates to participate in decisions that affect their work
achievement-oriented leadership
the leader sets challenging goals for subordinates and emphasizes high levels of job performance.
subordinates are of two types
in-group employees, out-group employees
in-group employees
leaders practice leadership rather than supervision and assign members important and responsible tasks that require high levels of ability. establish relationships with leaders
out-group employees
leaders use supervisionand assign tasks requiring low levels of ability and responsibility. little personal relationship with leaders.
_____ defines leadership from the standpoint of persons who are being led.
*implicit leadership theory
I-O psychologist recognize that effective leadership depends on teh interaction of three factors:
the traits and behaviors of the leaders, the characteristics of the followers, the nature of the situation in which leadership occurs.
In testing the implicit leadership theory, two traits were found to be associated with bad leadership:
*tyranny and masculinity
_____ are not constrained by their followers' expectations
*transformational leaders
_____ inspire feelings of worker empowerment.
*transformational leaders
_____ inspire subordinates and redirect their behavior through personal charisma, intellectual simulation, and consideration.
*transformational leaders
psychologist have proposed five types of leadership power:
*reward, coercive, legitimate, referent, and expert power.
reward power
organizational leaders have the ability to reward subordinates with pay raises and promotions. this power gives leaders a means of control over employees and can affect employee behavior.
coercive power
organizational leaders have an equally strong source of power in their ability to punish subordinates by firing them, by withholding promotions and raises, and by keeping them in undersirable jobs.
legitimate power
legitimate power derives from the organization's formal power structure. the hierarchy of control legitimizes the righ of the leader to direct and supervise the activities of followers and the duty of followers to accept that supervision.
referent power
refers to the degree to which employees identify with their leaders and the leaders' goals, accept thsoe goals as their own, and work with their leaders to achieve the goals.
expert power
refers to the extent to which leaders are believed to have the skills necessary to attain the group's goals. if employees acknowledge their leader's expertise, then they are more likely to become willing and supportive subordinates.
the _____ has been widely demonstrated in the workplace.
*pygmilian effect
leadership functions are grouped into two categories
*initiating structure and consideration
the higher the level, the _____ consideration functions and the _____ initiating structure functions are required of the leader.
*less, more
supervisors with the most productive work groups have the following qualities:
*person-centered, supportive, democratic, flexible, coaches rather than directors
person-centered supervisor
rate higher in the consideration function than do unsuccessful supervisors.
supportive supervisors
are more helpful to employees and more willing to defend them against criticism from higher management
democratic supervisors
hold frequent meetings with employees to solicit their views and encourage participation.
less effective supervisors are more _____
flexible supervisors
allow employees to accomplish their goals in their own way whenever possible, consistent with the goals of the organization.
less effective supervisors _____ how a job is to be performed.
coach-like supervisors
emphasize quality, provide clear directions, and give timely feedback to their workers.
recent research does not support the thinking that ______ is highly related to leadership.
studies show that people who acquire the support of ______ within a company are more likely to advance within the corporate hierarchy than anyone else.
unsuccessful executives frequently fall victim to the ______
invulnerability fallacy.
unrealistic optimism fallacy
believing they are so smart that they can do whatever they want
egocentrism fallacy
believing they are the only ones who matter, that the people who work for them don't count
omnipotence fallacy
believing they are all-powerful and therefore entitled to do what they want
omniscience fallacy
believing they know everything and see no limits to their knowledge
invulnerability fallacy
believing they can get away with doing what they want because they are too clever to get caught; even if they are caught, believing they will go unpunished because of their importance
participative management, self-managing work groups, and computer technology are ____ for supervisors.
the ____ is often a barrier for promotions for women.
*glass ceiling
glass ceiling
invisible barrier that separates women and minorities from top management positions
when women succeed on the job, their supervisors are more likely to attribute their success to _____
*external factors.
____ percent of american workers believe that the worst thing about their jobs, and the single greatest cause of stress is their boss
upgrading job titles for starting positions causes ____
*many more job applicants.
the most effective of the types of leadership power are ____
expert power, legitimate power, and referent power
three major characteristics of people who have a high need to achieve:
1.they favor a work environment in which they are able to assume responsiblity for solving problems 2. they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate, attainable goals, 3. they need continuing recognition and feedback about hteir progress so that they know how well they are doing.
scientific management correlates to theory __ and HR approach correlates to theory __.
*X, Y
person-oriented leader
keeps workers satisfied, effective in moderate situations
task-oriented leader
keeps tasks going. effective in extremely favorable or unfavorable situations.
if mismatch exists between leader style and situation
change leader or situation, leader cannot change leadership style
directive leader is best with ____
*unskilled workers
Supportive leader is best with ____
*highly skilled workers
the most effective leadership style depends on the _____ and the ____ of the subordinates
*situation, characteristics
path-goal theory requires ____
*leader flexibility
complications of path-goal theory
not concrete, hard to test
the leadership style, supervision, is based on ____
*formal authority
the leadership style, leadership, is based on ____
____ LMX relationship groups tend to perform better.
transactional leaders
what you think they're going to do. better in establish companies
transformational leaders
changing what they're doing. better with new ideas.
three components of transformational leadership
charismatic leadership, individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation
individualized consideration
the amount of attention and support the leader supplies to the followers
intellectual stimulation
the extent to which leaders persuade followers to think differently about how they perform their jobs.
three types of "formal organizational" or "position power"
reward, coercive, legitimate
two types of "personal power"
referent, expert
high level in organization relies more on _____
initiating structure
big five factors
conscientiousness, emotional stability, agreeableness, extraversion, openness to experience
sense of control
emotional stability
intellectual flexibility
group task/cohesion
leader dominance / networking
openness to experience
team risk taking
characteristics you would associate with successful managers and executives
high leadership pattern, considerable self control, good at self promotion, have mentors
unsuccessful executives
lack in consideration behavior, have personality factors rather than job performance
5 major problems for first-line supervisors
1.little supervisor training, 2. face conflicting demands, 3. trands complicate job, 4. self-workers are a threat, 5. computers make supervision more difficult
mid-level managers have five important negative feelings
1. lack of influence, 2. insufficient authority/resources, 3. obsolete, companies downsizing-let go of middle, 4. employee participation source of stress, 5. massive lay-offs, downsizing maes promotion less likely.
why do top executive report stress?
intense commitment of time and energy
how many women hold top corporate jobs in fortune 500 companies?
8% in 1995, 16% in 2002, doubled in 7 years.
(gender difference)___ are more effective in cooperation and ___ are more effective in direction and control
*women, men
what is the gender difference of subordinate ratings
no gender difference
(gender difference) ____ are more effective as mentors
____ as many women vs. men leave organizations to start their own
enhanced opportunities exist for women in _____
*new economies
what problem can arise when black people are promoted ahead of white people
reverse discrimination
___ theories of motivation deal with cognitive processes involved in making decisions.
____ theories of motivation deal with internal needs that influence behavior.
_____ theory posits the need to accomplish something and be the best in whatever one undertakes
research suggests two types of goals that can satisfy the need for achievement:
*mastery and performance
the five needs in the needs hierarchy theory are:
physiological, safety, belonging and love, esteem, and self-actualization
physiological needs
the basic human needs, including food, air, water, and sleep, and the drives for sex and activity
safety needs
the needs for physical shelter and for psychological security and stability
belonging and love needs
the social need for love, affection, friendship, and affiliation that involve interaction with and acceptance by other people
esteem needs
the needs for self-esteem and for esteem, admiration, and respect from other people.
self-actualization need
the need for self-fulfillment, for achieving our full potential and realizing our capabilities
motivator needs are related to _____
*job satisfaction
hygiene needs are aspects of the work environment such as ____
*pay and supervision
_____ is the expansion of the job to give the jobholder mroe tasks to perform
*job enrichment
employee perceptions of job characteristics influence ____
the core job characteristics identified in job-characteristics theory are:
skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, feedback
skill variety
the extent to which workers use various skills and abilities on the job. the more challenging a job, the more meaningful it will be.
task identity
the unity of a job-that is, whether it involves doing a whole unit of work or completing a product instead of making only part of a product on an assembly line
task significance
the importance of a job to the lives and well-being of co-workers or consumers. for example, the job of aircraft mechanic affects the lives of more people in a more significant way than does the job of postal clerk.
the amount of independence employees have in scheduling and organizing their work.
the amount of information employees receive about the effectiveness and quality of their job performance
Herzberg suggested the following ways of enriching a job:
1.remove some management controls over employees and increase their accountability and responsibility for their work 2. create complete or natural work unit where possible - for example, allow employees to produce a whole unit instead of one component of a unit 3. provide regular and continuous feedback on productivity and job performance directly to employees instead of through their supervisors. 4. encourage employees to take on new, challenging tasks and to become experts in a particular task or operation.
removing some management control over employees increases employee _____
*autonomy, authority, and freedom
creating complete or natural work units where possible increases the ______
*the likelihood that employees will regard their work as meaningful within the total organizational process.
redesign jobs to maximize core job characteristics by:
*combine small, specialized tasks to form larger work units, arrange taks in natural, meaningful work units to make the worker responsible for an identifiable unit, give workers responsiblity for direct contact with clients or end users, giver workers authority, responsibility, and control over the job tasks, arrange for workers to learn regularly how well they are performing the job
combining small, specialized tasks to form larger work units enhances _____
*skill variety and task identity
arranging tasks in natural, meaningful work units to make the worker responsible for an identifiable unit enhances _____
*task identity and task significance
giving workers responsibility for direct contact with clients or end users enhances ______
*skill variety, autonomy, and feedback
giving workers authority, responsibility, and control over the job tasks increases _____
*skill variety, task identity, task significance, and autonomy
arranging for workers to learn regularly how well they are performing the job increases _____
Hackman and Oldham developed the ______
*Job Diagnostic Survey
JDS is short for
Job Diagnostic Survey (short)
JDS measures the three aspects of the job-characteristics theory:
1. employees' perceptions of the job characteristics, 2. employees' level of the growth need, and 3. employees' job satisfaction.
JDS is _____
a self-report inventory consisting of short descriptive phrases about hte various job characteristics. respondents rate how accurately each statement describes their job.
The three facets of the VIE theory are related as follows:
1. employees must decide whether they expect certain job behaviors-such as coming to work on time, following safe procedures, or improving productivity- to have a high probability of leading to a particular outcome. 2. employees must determine whether that outcome will ead to other outcomes - for example, whether a good attendance record leads to a bonus. 3. employees must decide whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way.
decide whether to expect certain job behaviors to have a high probability of leading to a particular outcome
determine whether that outcome will ead to other outcomes
whether those outcomes have sufficient value to motivate them to behave a certain way
john calvin
16th century french protestant leader who gave us the ultimate work ethic. work alone pleases God, but to achieve that end, work must be methodical and disciplined. "notleisure and enjoyment but only activity serves to increase the glory of god"
four content models
achievement motivation theory, needs hierarchy theory, motivator-hygiene (two-factor) theory, and job-characteristics theory
McClellands research on achievement motivation identified three major characteristics of people who have a high need to achieve:
1. they favor a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems. 2. they tend to take calculated risks and to set moderate, attainable goals, 3. they need continuing recognition and feedback about their progress so that they know how well they are doing.
McClellands research
shows that successful business managers consistently display a high need to achieve,regardless of culture
____ theory deals with a person's perceived expectations of the rewards that follow certain behaviors
____ theory deals with the ratio of outcome to input and how equitably that ratio compares with co-workers.
______ is the measure of importance you assign to job outcome.
individuals with a high need for achievement select _____ goals to accomplish
*moderately difficult
_______ are concerned with factors and processes internal to the employee.
*process theories
interest in work motivation theories has shifted away from developing new theories and more toward _____
*extending, empirically testing, and applying proposed ideas in the workplace.
The ____ measures perceived job satisfaction.
_____ refers to the individual aspects of the job that influence employee attitudes.
*job facet satisfaction
_____ increases with age.
*job satisfaction
sex differences in reported job satisfaction are ______
there is a _____ relationship between internal locus of control and job satisfaction
organizational commitment is strongly related to _____
*reduced turnover rates
in disfunctional turnover ____
*high performers quit
Workers on wage-incentive systems report pay _____
managers on merit pay systems report pay _____
merit pay can ____ work motivation
job involvement is related to _______
*job satisfaction
organizational commitment has the following components
*acceptance of the organization's values and goals, willingness to exert effort for the organization, having a strong desire to remain affiliated with the organization.
organizational justice
refers to how fairly employees perceive themselves to be treated by their company.
two personality factors related to job satisfaction are
alienation (feel less) and locus of control (internal) - high job satisfaction
workgroups with majority of males are paid ____that workgroups with equal males and females
three types of commitment are:
*affective(attitudinal), behaviorsal, and normative
affective commitment
the employee identifies with the organization, internalizes its values and attitudes, and complies with its demands.
affective commitment correlates high with _____
*perceived organizational support
behavioral commitment
the employee is bound to the organization only by peripheral factors such as pension plans and seniority, which would not continue if the employee quit. there is no personal identification with organizational goals and values.
affective commitment is positively related to ____
*job performance
behavioral commitment is negatively related to _____
*job performance
normative commitment
involves a sense of obligation to remain with the employer, a feeling that develops when the employees receive benefits such as tuition reimbursement or specific skills training.
organizational citizenship behavior
involves putting forth extra effort, doing more for your employer than the minimum requirements of your job.
organizational citizenship behavior involves ____
putting forth extra effort
content theories (4)
focus on work itself - dealing with specific needs that motivate and direct behavior
process theories (3)
deal with cognitive processes we use in making decisions/choices about our work.
the four content theories of motivation
achievement motivation theory, needs hierarchy theory, motivator-hygiene (two-factor)theory, job characteristics theory
motivator needs produce
*job satisfaction
hygiene needs produce
*job dissatisfaction
motivator needs (internal to the work) include:
responsibility, achievement, recognition, advancement, and career development and growth
hygiene needs (external to the job tasks, involving features of the work environment)
company policy, supervision, interpersonal relations, working conditions, salary
Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory, to promote job enrichment
remove management controls, assign complete work units when possible, give regular and continuous feedback, and encourage employees to take on new tasks
Hackman & Oldham (1976) job characteristics theory, elements of job design
larger work units, meaningful work units, contact with clients and end users, control over job tasks, performance feedback
With VIE theory of motivation
employees with perform at level that gives greatest payoff. different rewards are valued differently by different people
the three process theories of motivation
1. Valence-instrumentality-expectancy theory. 2. equity theory. 3. goal-setting theory.
vroom 1964
VIE theory
do job behaviors lead to a particular outcome?

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