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i-o psyc ch. 1-6


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Adverse impact
when a group of job applicants or employees is treated markedly worse than the majority group in staffing decisions.
a training method for skilled crafts and trades involving classroom instruction and on-the-job experience. average 4-6 years
aptitude tests
psychological tests to measure specific abilities, such as mechanical or clerical skills.
assessment centers
a method of selection and training that involves a simulated job situation in which candidates deal with actual job problems.
a source of error in performace appraisal in which raters attribute or assign positive or negative explanations to an employee's behavior
average rating (leniency) error
a source of error in performance appraisal i nwhich a rater is unwilling to assign very good or very poor ratings. consequently, most ratings fall inthe middle of the rating scale.
a controversial practice of grouping test scores for minority job applicants to equalize hiring rates
behavioral observation scales (BOS)
a performance appraisal technique in which appraisers rate the frequency of critical employee behaviors.FREQUENCY
behaviorally anchored rating scales (BARS)
a performance appraisal technique in which appraisers rate critical employee behaviors. critical-incident behaviors are established, used as standards for appraising effectiveness. BARS items can be scored objectively by indicating whether the employee displays that behavior. PRESENCE
behavior modification
a training program of positive reinforcement to reward employees for displaying desirable job behaviors.
a. performance audit, b. select behavior to be changed, c. introduce program of positive reinforcement
biographical inventories
an employee selection technique covering an applicant's past behavior, attitudes, preference, and values.
business games
a training method that simulates a complex organizational situation to encourage the development of problem-solving and decision-making skills. gives scenarios to see performance, used to develop problem-solving and decision-making skills, trainees often compete in teams, teams deal with corporate problems, and instructors evaluate their effectiveness
case studies
a method of executive training in which trainees analyze a business problem and offer solutions.
computer-assisted instruction (CAI)
a computer-based training method in which trainees learn material at their own pace and receive immediate feedback on their progress.
decreases training time required and improves transfer. doesn't work well with poorly motivated individuals
computerized adaptive tests
a means of administering psychological tests in which an applicant's response to an item determines the level of difficulty of succeeding items.
constant (systematic) bias
a source of error in performance appraisal based on the different standards used by raters
control group
in an experiment, this is the group of research participants that is not exposed to the independent variable.
the relationship between two variables. the strength and direction of the relatioship is expressed byt hte correlation coefficient.
criterion-related validity
concerned with the relationship between test scores and subsequent job performance. predictive (involves administering the test to all job applicants and correlating test scores with later performance, concurrent-involves testing current employees and correlating the results with job performance(problems of preselection and differing motivation levels)
critical-incidents technique
a means of identifying specific activities or behaviors that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job.
dependent variable
in an experiment, this is the resulting behavior of the subjects, which depends on the manipulation of the independent variable
descriptive statistics
ways of describing or representing research data in a concise, meaningful manner.
experimental group
in an experiment, this is the group of research participants exposed to the independent variable.
experimental method
the scientific way to determine the effect or influence of a variable on the subjects' performance or behavior.
fixed-alternative survey questions
survey questions to which respondents limit their answers to the choices or alternatives presented. they are similar to multiple-choice question on college exams.
forced-choice techniques
a performance appraisal tecnique in which raters are presented with groups of descriptive statements and are asked to select the phrase in each group that is most descriptive or least descriptive of the worker being evaluated. more costly to develop, no often used
forced-distribution technique
a performance appraisal technique in which supervisors rate employees according to a prescribed distribution of ratings, similar to grading on a curve. only 30% can be above average. predetermined categories may not be fair, hard to compare across groups
group tests
psychological tests designed to be administered to a large number of people at the same time.
halo effect
the tendency to judge all aspects of a person's behavior or character on the basis of a single attribute.
use multiple raters to avoid.
hawthorne studies
a long-term research program at the Hawthorne, Illinois, Western Electric Company plant. It documented the influence of a variety of managerial and organizational factors on employee behavior.
impression management
acting deliberately to make a good impressio, to present oneself in the most favorable way
inadequate information error
a source of error in performance appraisal in which supervisors rate their subordinates even though they may not know enough about them to do so fairly and accurately.
in-basket technique
an assessment-center exercise that requires job applicants to process memos, letters, and directives found in a typical manager's in-basket. method of personell selection, training method or performance appraisal.
independent variable
in an experiment, this is the stimulus variable that is manipulated to determine its effect on the subjects' behavior.
individual tests
psychological tests designed to be administered to one person at a time.
industrial-organizational psychology (I-O psyc)
The application of the methods, facts, and principles of the science of psychology to people at work.
inferential statistics
methods for analyzing research data that express relationships in terms of probabilities
interest tests
psychological tests to assess a person's interests and preferences. these tests are used primarily for career counseling.
interpersonal affect
our feelings or emotions toward another person. in performance appraisal, the emotional tone of the relationship between manager and employee, whether positive or negative, can influence the assigned ratings.
job analysis
the study of a job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers.
job rotation
technique that assigns trainees to various jobs and departments over a period of a few years, often used for new college graduates and for training for skilled and semi-skilled jobs, disadvatages include disruption caused by frequent moves
leaderless group discussion
an assessment-center exercise in which job applicants meet to discuss an actual business problem under the pressure of time. usually, a leader emerges from teh group to guide the discussion.
management-by-objectives (MBO)
a peformance appraisal technique that involves a mutual agreement between employee and manager on goals to be achieved in a given period.
two phases - goal setting and performance review. employees may feel pressured, satisfies fair employemnt guidelines and may increase motivation and productivity because employee has a say.
the arithmetic average; a way of describing the central tendency of a distribution of data.
the score at the midpoint of a statistical distribution; half the scores fall below the median and half above.
merit rating
objective ratin methods designed to provide an objective evaluation of work performance.
the large-scale reanalysis of the results of previous research studies.
the most frequently obtained score in a distribution of data.
most-recent-performance error
a source of error in performance appraisal in which a rater tends to evaluate a worker's most recent job behavior rather than behavior throughout the period since the last appraisal.
naturalistic observation
the scientific observation of behavior in its natural setting, without any experimental manipulation of the independent variable.
needs assessment
an analysis of corporate and individual goals undertaken before designing a training program. 1st step in job analysis made up of organizational analysis, task analysis and person analysis. most companies do not do this due to time and expense involved
normal distribution
a bell-shaped distribution of data in which most scores fall near the center and a few fall at the extremem low and high ends.
objective tests
have scoring process that is free of personal judgment or bias
on-the-job (OTJ) training
training that takes place directly on the job for which the person has been hired. major advantage is economy; also transfer of training, may be expensive if it takes other workers away from their jobs to conduct the training, has potential of disrupting production
open-end survey questionnaire
survey questions to which respondents state tehir views in their own words. they are similar to essay question on college exams.
paired-comparison technique
a performance appraisal technique that compares the performance of each worker with that of every other worker in the group. advantage is accurate and judgmental process is simple, disadvantage is many comparisons when dealing with large number of employees. (N*(N - 1)) /2
peer rating
a performance appraisal technique in which managers or executives at the same level assess one another's abilities and job behaviors.
performance appraisal
the periodic, formal evaluation of employee performance for the purpose of making career decisions.
personality tests
psychological tests that assess personal traits and feelings.
power tests
tehst that have no time limi. applicants are allowed as much time as they need to complete the test.
the idea that the differences between the means of experimental and control groups could have occurred by chance.
probability sampling
a method for constructing a representative sample of a poplation for surveys or polls. each person in the population has a known probability or chance of being included in the sample.
projective techniques
a personality assessment technique in which test-takers project their feelings onto an ambiguous stimulus such as an inkblot.
quota sampling
a method for constructing a representative sample of a population for surveys or polls. because the sample must reflect the proportions of the larger population, quotas are established for various categories such as age, gender, and ethnic origin.
race norming
a controversial practice, now outlawed, of boosting test scores for minority job applicants to equalize hiring rates.
ranking technique
a performance appraisal technique in which supervisors list the workers in their group in order from highest to lowest or best to worst. simple to do, difficult when there are many employees to evaluate, provides less evaluative data than rating, doesn't allow for listing of similarities
rating scales
a performance appraisal technique in which supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses each relevant job characteristic.
rational validity
content, construct
realistic job previews
a recruitment technique that acquaints prospective employees with positive and negative aspects of a job.
the consistency or stability of a response on a psychological test.
reverse discrimination
the phenomenon that may occur when recruiting, hiring, promoting, and making other human resources decisions in favor of members of a minority group result in discrimination against members of the majority group.
role conflict
a stiuation that arises when there is a disparity between job demands and the employee's personal standards
role playing
a management training technique in which trainees play the role of a supervisor, acting out various behaviors in situations with subordinates.
selection ratio
the relationship between the number of people to be hired (the number of jobs) and the number available to be hired (the potential labor supply).
a performance appraisal technique in which managers assess their own abilities and job performance.
self-report personality inventories
personality assessment tests that include questions dealing with situations, symptoms, and feelings. test-takers are asked to indicate how well each item describes themselves or how much they agree with each item.
situational interviews
interviews that focus not on personal characteristics or work experience but on the behaviors needed for successful job performance.
situational testing
an early term for the assessment-center technique for employee selection and performance appraisal. employees are place in a simulated job setting so that their behavior under stress can be observed and evaluated.
skewed distribution
an asymmetrical distribution of data with most scores at either the high or the low end.
speed tests
tests that have a fixed time limit, at which point everyone taking the test must stop.
standard deviation
a measure of the variability of a dsitribution, the standard deviation is a precise distance along the distribution's baseline.
the consistency or uniformity of the conditions and procedures for administering a psychological test.
statistical significance
the level of confidence we can have in the results of an experiment. significance is based on the calculation of probability values.
structured interviews
interviews that use a predetermined list of questions that are asked of every person applying for a particular job.
subjective tests
contain itmes such as essay question and can be influenced by the personal characteristics and attitude of the scorer
survey research method
interviews, behavioral observations, and questionnaires designed to sample what people say about their feelings or opinions, or how they say they will behave in a given situation.
unstructured interviews
interviews in which the format and question asked are left to the discretion of the interviewer.
the determination of whether a psychological test or other selection device measures what it is intended to measure.
validity generalization
the idea that tests valid in one situation may also be valid in another situation.
vestibule training
training that takes place in a simulated workspace. simulated workspace in a separate training facility, relies on skilled instructors, greatest disadvantage is cost, sometimes uses outdated equipment for training
work analysis
the study of certain tasks and skills that workers can transfer from one job to another.
EEOC-Equal employment opportunity comission
hiring, promotion, demotion, transfer, layoff, discharge, early retirement
those who believe in their ability to perform a task tend to succeed. positively related to motivation to learn and training success
scope of organizational training programs
corporate education campuses, training for disabled workers, training programs must meet EEOC guidelines and must be clearly related to job performance before results can be applied to career decisions.
goals and staffing requirements for organizational training programs
Needs assessment is the first step. It is made up of organzational(specific needs) analysis, task analysis (specific tasks and KSA's), and person analysis (skill gap of people)
pre-training environment and attributes of employees
includes direct and indirect decisions and cues that indicate the value management places on training programs, such as: policies(of organizations), attitudes toward training, resources available, and employee participation/needs assessment (buy in from management so they'll support it, buy in from employees so they'll feel motivated).
Individual differences in ability, pretraining expectations, motivation, job involvement, locus of control, self-efficacy
conditions that facilitate learning
active practice, distributed vs. massed practice, whole and part learning, transfer of training.
feedback, reinforcement
fifteen different training methods
on-the-job training, vestibule training, apprenticeship, computer-assisted instruction, net-based training, behavior modification, job rotation, case studies, business games, in-basket training, role playing, behavior modeling, executive coaching, diversity training, career self-management training
need for lifelong learning, career development, and planning
reasons for staying with company -career growth, development, learning. people differ in values, goals and needs, establishment 20-40, maintenance 40-55, declind 55-retirement.
need for evaluation of training programs and why many organizations don't evaluate their programs
necessary to measure the worth of a training program (not done a lot), assessment examines 3 results: knowledge(cognitive), skills(outcomes), and abilities(affective)
companies often do not evealuate training programs due to cost, lack of assessment skills, program of the moment, feel good results
behavior modeling
trainees attempt to imitate the job behaviors of successful supervisors. trainer provides introduction, trainees watch a video of supervisor using appropriate procedures, trainees engage in behavior rehearsal, trainer and other trainees provide feedback, transfers directly to job, use sandwich example (good, bad, good).
executive coaching
upper-level management training. one-to-one training sessions between a coach and manager to improve manager's performance, designed to fit individual needs as they arise, often used to follow up poor ratings on 360 degree feedback appraisals, weak in one area, company will crate special training program for that manager.
diversity training
teach people to confront personal prejudices that could lead to discriminatory behavior, $10 billion spent anually, must be long-term program integrated into organizational culture, half-day "feel good" sessions fail to promote needed change. don poorly the programs can foster charges of "political correctness"
principles of psychological testing
standardization(consistency of conditions for test), objectivity(scoring), test norms(distribution of scores), reliability(consistency of response),
validity(test measures what its intended to measure), validity generalization(based on meta-analysis and refers to the principle that test valid in one situation may also be valid in another situation)
implications of fair employment practices
increased validity research to document whether a test discriminates agains any particular group of job applicants, studies indicate cognitive ability tests not biased against blacks, criterion-related validation procedures are require, when feasible, by EEOC guidelines, empirical demonstration of test validity does not guarantee that a test will not be declared to be discriminatory
overview of a sample testing program
investigate the nature of the job for which testing will be used, choose or develop appropriate tests related to job success,, consider cost, time, validate the test and the items withing (conduct and item analysis). ensure the items are not too easy or too difficult, once the validity and reliability are established, a cutoff score must be determined. cutoff scores must consider the probability that a minimally competent person would answer each test item correctly.
administrative implications of the different types of psychological tests used in the workplace
psyc tests can be categorized in two ways 1.the manner in which they were administered, 1. abilities they are designed to measure.1. individual tests
2. group tests
3. computerized adaptive tests
4. speed tests
5. power tests
seven types of psychological tests used in the workplace
cognitive abilities (otis, wonderlic, revised beta-nonverbal, wechsler adult), interests(strong, kuder occupational), aptitudes(special abilities), motor skills((dexterity, coordination), personality (big five)(personal traits and feelings)-self report, projective), integrity (honesty)tests, situational judgment tests(test judgment in the workplace)
limitations of psychological testing
uncritical use, rejection of qualified applicants, faking, retaking, privacy issues
standardization sample
the scores of the group of subjects used to establish test norms
standardization sample scores
serve as the point of comparison for determining the relative standing of the persons being tested
test-retest method
administering a new test twice to the same subjects and correlating the two sets of scores to determine reliability
equivalent-forms method
uses a test-retest approach, but uses a different but similar test. disadvantage is the difficulty and expense of developing two separate forms
split-halves method
determined by dividing the items of a test into two groups and correlating the two sets of scores
content validity
assesses test items to ensure that they measure what they intend to measure
construct validity
determines characteristics measured by a test
performance appraisals
should be based on a well-designed performance review programt hta includes formal appraisal interviews. should be based on job analysis. should focus on job behaviors. supervisors should be well trained. records should be retained. conduct because validation, make decisions about persons future with company, identify training requirements, employee improvement, pay, promotion, personnel decisions
critics of performance appraisal
labor unions prefer seniority, employees prefer to not know of deficiencies, managers don't like judging, professors
computerized monitoring
advantages -immediate feedback, reduces bias, identifies training needs, takes out subjectivity, facilitates goal setting, increases productivity. disadvantages - considered invasion of privacy, increases stree, reduces job satisfaction, focus on quanity instead of quality
written narratives
brief essays and numerical reating procedures, more prone to personal bias, subjective, merit rating is objective
performance rating scales
most frequently used technique, supervisors indicate how or to what degree a worker possesses a relevant job characteristic.

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