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Social Psych Chapter 2


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Hindsight Bias
The tendency for people ot exaggerate how much they could have predicted an outcome after knowing that it occurred
observational method
the technique whereby a researcher observes people and systematically records measurements or impressions of their behavior
the method by which researchers attempt to understand a group or culture by observing it from the inside, without imposing any preconceived notions they might have
interjudge reliability
the level of agreement between two or more people who independently observe and code a set of data
interjudge reliability pt 2
by showing that two or more judges independently come up with the same observations, researchers ensure that the observations are not the subjective, distorted impressions of one individual
archival analysis
a form of the observational method in which the researcher examines the accumulated documents, or archives of a culture
correlational method
the technique whereby two or more variables are systematically measured and the relationship between them (ie how much one can be predicted from the other) is assessed
correlation coefficient
a statistical technique that assesses how well you can predict one variable from another -- for example, how well you can predict people's weight from their height
research in which a representative sample of people are asked questions about their attitude or behavior
random selection
a way of ensuring that a sample of people is representative of a population by giving everyone in the population an equal chance of being selected for the sample
what is the only way to determine causal relationships?
experimental method
experimental method
researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable
independent variable
the variable a researcher changes of varies to see if it has an effect on some other variable
dependent variable
measured to see if it is influenced by the independent variable; researcher hypothesizes that the dependent variable will depend on the level of the independent variable
internal validity
keeping everything but the independent variable the same in an experiment
random assignment to condition
a process that ensures that all participants have an equal chance of taking part in any condition of an experiment
(Probability Level)
a number calculated with statistical techniques that tells researchers how likely it is that the results of their experiment occurred by chance and not because of the independent variable(s)
Trustworthy p-value
less than 5 in 100
external validity
the extent to which the results of a study can be generalized to other situations and to other people
mundane realism
the extent to which an experiment is similar to real-life conditions
psychological realism
the extent to which the psychological processes triggered in an experiment are similar to psychological processes that occur in everyday life
true or false:
psycological realism can be high in an experiment even if mundane realism is low
cover story
a description of the purpose of a study, given to participants, that is different from its true purpose

used to maintain psychological realism
repeating a study, often with different subject populations or in different settings
a statistical technique that averages the results of two or more studies to see if the effect of an independent variable is reliable
cross cultural research
conducted with members of different cultures to see how culturally dependent a psychological process is
field experiments
experiments conducted in nautral settings rather than in the laboratory
basic research
studies that are designed to find the best answer to the question of why people behave as they do

these are conducted purely for reasons of intellectual curiosity
applied research
studies designed to solve a particular social problem
informed ocnsent
agreement to participate in an experiment, granted in full awareness of the nature of the experiment, which has been explained in advance
misleading participants about the true purpose of a study or the events that will actually transpire
explaining to participants, at the end of an experiment, the true purpose of the study and exactly what transpired

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