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PSYC 100


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The fact that _____ memories are most strongly disrupted when a person has amnesia supports the consolidation view of long-term memory encoding.
For any trait, a high MZ and low DZ concordance value supports the probability that the trait is most likely due to
genetic factors
Remembering where you went on your first date is an example of
episodic memory
The reinforcement schedule that produces the LEAST amount of resistance to extinction is which of the following?
fixed-ratio 1
Suppose that a young child likes to play with building blocks in the family's den. Sometimes while playing with the blocks she misbehaves. When she does this, her mother and father tell her that she can no longer play with her blocks that she must go to h
negative punishment


time-out from positive reinforcement

When Jody's mother takes him to preschool, he clings to her and wont explore the toys. When she leaves for the day, he becomes extremely upset and remains upset even upon her return. Accprdong to Mary Ainsworth, Jody's behaviour would be indicative of ___
anxious resistant
Mean is to _____ as standard deviation is to _____.
central tendency; variability
When Tom and Eric's mother leaves her millions to the cat shelter and nothing to them, they both feel very angry and hurt. Tom writes a bitter song that he performs on stage. Eric keeps commenting on how angry and bitter Tom is. Toms is using ________ whe
sublimation; projection
The approach for investigating psychological phenomena Wundt adopted was
According to the overjustification hypothesis, a disadvantage of incentives is that they may do which of the followingÉ
decrease intrinsic motivation
Psychologists believe that a person's behaviour results primarily from...
genetic predispositions shaped by an individual's own experience.
The case o Christopher, the young man with autism spectrum disorder who lacks the skills to look after himself yet is a language savant, provides support for which theory of language development?
The ability to figure out that 7 is the next number in the following sequence 1 2 9 3 4 8 5 6 __, even tought you've never ecountered this problem before, requires that you apply...
fluid intelligence
The first step of the scientific method specifies that a researcher...
formulate a hypothetical causal relation among the variables.
Which if the following is true:

(a) if two tests are each reliable, then they are also valid
(b) if a test is not valid, it cannot be reliable
(c) if the reliability of a test is limited, its validity will be limited too
(d) If the validit
(c) if the reliability of a test is limited, its validity will be limited too
Data from a large number of studies indicate that genetic differences are responsible for _____ differences in IQ and educational achievement.
at least half
Charles Darwin's notion of _____ is the primary explanation for the changes in the genetic and physical characteristics of a population or group of organisms over time
natural selection
Renee Baillargeon showed infants as young as 3 1/2 months a possible event (a solid screen obscuring a solid object) and an impossible event (a solid screen passing through a solid object). In contrast to Piaget's conclusion regarding the age at which phy
longer at the impossible than at the possible event
Jill visited a psychic and was surprised by how much the woman could correctly deduce about her personality, goals and dreams. Either the woman really was psychic or jill fell prey to the...
confirmation bias
A commitment to the philosophical notions of empiricism and materialism implies a belief in _______, the idea that behaviour can be predicted perfectly from an animal's current brain ste together with the environmental stimuli it is exposed to.
REM periods tend to ____ as the night goes on.
Dr. Singh wants to know if the type of lighting (flourescent or incandescent) under which participants read affects the number of pages of text that they can read in one hour. The dependent variable in this experiment is....
the number of pages read in an hour
When Colin was young he was stung by a bee and had a severe allergic reaction. Now, many years later, whenever he hears a buzzing sound (including when people imitate a buzzing sound), he becomes nervous and panis. In this example, the conditioned stimilu
the buzzing sound
Which of the following is TRUE about the visual system?

(a) lateral inhibition in cortex is an important determiner of perceptual consistency.
(b) bar-shaped receptive fields in cortex facilitate edge detection, which is a critical step in visio
(b) bar-shaped receptive fields in the cortex facilitate edge detection, which is a critical step in vision.
Which of the following characteristics from Eysenck's theory of personality would be shown by a person who was sanguine according to the Greek theory of humours?
extroverted and stable
Dr. Johanssen's research finds that the productivity of accountants is greatest when they are middleaged and tends to be lower in both younger and oldr age groups. The relationship between productivity and age in Dr. Johanssen's research is
Together, variation (at both the genotypic and phenotypic levels) and competition....
produce evolutionary change
All of the following are considered kinds of learning EXCEPT:

(a) superstitious behaviour
(b) habituation
(c) closed genetic programs
(d) operant conditioning
(e) classical conditioning

(c) closed genetic programs
Suppose that you conduct an experiment to study the effects of love on improving children's self-concepts. To manipulate love, you allow a research assistant to hug each child after he or she has successfully completed a set of math problems. After the st
When Sue phones her aunt in Taiwan she has to remember the long distance code, a country code, an area code, and then the local number. She manages to remember the 15 numbers involved through...
The Gestalt law of similarity predicts that...
similar elements are perceptually grouped together
If two variables are positively correlated, then in a scatterplot we should notice that high values of one variable are associated with ____ values of the other variable.
Which of the following does NOT reflect the effect of experience on perception?

(a) the fact that our sensory system binds visible movement of a face with a concurrent speech utterance coming from another location to create the ventriloquism effect
(c) the fact that its easier to follow and understand a male voice if its masked by a female talker than if it is masked by another male talker.
Which of the following statements is TRUE?

(a) DZ twins develop from a single fertilized ovum that divides in to two identical cells
(b) MZ twins develop from the fertilization of one ova by two different sperm
(c) Members of any set of DZ tw
(d) DZ twins are no more genetically alike than any pair of siblings.
Three-year-old Berg only uses the word "boat" to refer to his family's motor boat which they use to water-ski, but fails to recognize that pontoon boats and row boats can also be called "boats". This phenomenon is called...
Katie and Karie are 3 year old twins. Katie, who has never opened a door before, watches with interest as Karie reaches for the doorknob on the bathroom door, twists it to the left and the right, and then pushes the door open. Later that day, Katie confro
(e) all of the above
Bartlett and Loftus would definitly agree that...
meory is reconstructive and reflects expectations and schemas as well as what actually happened.
Based on Zuckerman's account, people who enjoy activities involving a high degree of risk (such as skydiving) are likely to score high on the personality dimension of....
If your body is dehydrated, but you are not thirsty, we would say that you have...
a need but not a drive.
Mindy is a waitress at a local diner who got employee of the month. Mindy and her husband get into a fight and he storms out. During her shift that day, her customers find her to be inattentive and rude. Her customers assume she is a bad waitress and rude
the fundamental atrribution error
Which of the following chains best reflects our understand of the influence of genes of behaviour?

(a) genes > proteins > cellular processes > behaviour
(b) genes > chromosomes > genomes > behaviour
(c) genes > proteins > external environment
(a) genes > proteins > cellular processes > behaviour
Members of any given animal species typically vary....
both genotypically and phenotypically
Piaget ha been criticized for underestimating the importance of the child's interactions with....
the social environment
How can humans recognize over 10,000 different odours when we have only 339 receptors?
Different oderants attach to different combinations of receptors.
Ami is looking at a gray house. One wall is in the sun; another in the shade. To Ami, though, both walls appear to be the same shade of gray. This is an example of....
perceptual constancy
Evidence for the nativist perspective of language development includes the observation that...
the FOXP2 gene found in humans is somewhat different than that found in other animals (has gone through a mutation)
Through their research on human responses to physical stimuli, both Helmholtz and Fechner contributed to the beginning of...
Ininterpreting studies showing correlations between parental disciplinary styles and children's behaviour, we should bear in mind that the correlations....
could reflect the influence of the child's behaviour style on the parent's disciplinary style.
Dendritic spines are...
branch like structures that recieve information from other neurons.
You have been watching a long train go by for several minutes and then, when it has gone, you view a stationary train behind it. Due to _______ that train will appear to you to be ______.
a motion after effect; moving in the opposite direction
A one year old child is placed in an unfamiliar room containing a variety of toys. She confidently explores the room when her mother is present, becomes upset and plays less when left alone, then eageryly goes to the mother upon her return. By this test,
The mark of a good theory is that it....
produces a testable hypothesis
Which of the following is FALSE about synapses?

(a) neurotransmitters are released from terminal buttons and bind at receptors on dendrites.
(b) the synapse is where the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells physically touch eachother, like wires i
(b) the synapse is where the presynaptic and postsynaptic cells physically touch eachother, like wires in an electrical circuit.
The variable that is manipulated in an experiment is called the _______ variable.
Sometimes, you can detect the presence of a very weak stimulus and sometimes you cannot. This is due to the....
inherent variability in the activity of our nervous systems
The more that numbers in a set of numbers differ from each other, the larger the....
Sami has consumed a drug that retards the rate of reuptake. This will have the effect of....
prolonging the effects of the neurotransmitter
The difference between the highest and lowest numbers in a set of numbers is called the....
Language can be differentiated from other forms of communication such as the honey bees' dance or the vervet's call because it contains the following properties....
semanticity, generativity, and displacement
An example of _____ would be if you were to observe a rat pressing a lever in the presence of a 1000 Hz tone but not pressing the lever in the presence of a 700 Hz tone.
A basketball coach notices that one of his players shoots more goals when playing in a real game with a crowd than during practice. What could account for this difference in performance?
social facilitation
Visual search tasks....
1. rarity of targets influences decision criterion in a way that is not compatible with screening procedures.
2. low target prevalence biases the decision criterion such that there is a higher number of misses
3. low target prevalence biases the criterion such that there is a higher number of correct rejections
4. when more than one target is present, even trained professionals have a tendency to only find one of them.

Nautral selection has favoured species that reproduce sexually because sexual reproduction....
leads to genetic diversity, which is adaptive
Acording to the optimum-level hypothesis, negative reinforcement is to ________ as positive reinforcement is to ________.
very high arousal; very low arousal
One of two identical balls of clay is rolled into the shape of a hot dog. If a child who is watching says that the hot dog now has more clay than the ball, the child is demonstrating an inability to undersand....
conservation (of mass)
The _______ is an important brain structure in the formation of new _____ memories
hippocampus; explicit
In an ambitious project by Bell, Weinberg, and Hammersmith (1981) which studied male and demale homosexuality, the major conclusions of the study were.....
1. early heterosexual experiences during childhood and adolescense were unrewarding.
2. sexual orientation appears to be determined prior to adolescence and prior to homosexual or heterosexual activity.
3. the self-report of homosexual feeling long before the first homosexual experience
4. a strong relation between gender non-conformity in childhood and the development of homosexuality

Suppose a child can mentally think about turning water into ice by placing it in a freezer and then turning the ice back into water by letting it thaw. This demonstrates an understanding of _____, which should first become possible in the _____ stage of d
operations; concrete-operational
Which diagnostic machine uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce images of the brain?
MRI scanner
The sex of a child is determined by.....
the type of sperm that fertilizes the ovum
Peter Watson gave subjects a set of three numbers and asked them to guess his rule for generating the sequence. He found that most ubjects tested their hypotheses by generating sequences _______ with their current hypothesis, which led to _____ at the tas
consistent; failure
Structuralism is to _______ as functionalism is to _______.
elements of consciousness; purpose of consciousness.
In descending order, the relative contribution of each of the following to intelligence is?

(shared environment - genes - nonshared (unique) environment)

genes, nonshared (unique) environment, shared environment
In general, helping behaviour in emergency situations is discouraged MOST by....
the presence of large number of people
Denise has been thinking about buying a car for some time but has had difficulty choosing a brand. One day she sees a commercial with her favorite celebrity endorsing a Honda and thinks to herself "If my fav celeb likes it I should get it too!" According
the peripheral route
Why is the human mind like an iceberg in Freud's conception?
most of it is submerged and invisible
People who have amnesia are able to retain all of the following except....

(a) procedural memory
(b) working memory
(c) priming
(d) implicit memory
(e) explicit memory

(e) explicit memory

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