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History Summary Through the Middle Ages


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Paleolithic people were hunters and gatherers. They were also totemistic.
Neolithic people were farmers and had territories.
The land between the unnavigable, unpredictable, Tigris and Euphrates rivers, giving rise to warring city states (even today).
The Major Tribes are Sumerians and Semetic tribes.
The Sumerians were highly evolved. Their major king was Gilgamesh from the Epic Of Gilgamesh. They used cuniform writing. They were conquered by the warlike Akkadians.
The Akkadians were a warring people. Their major king was Sargon. They were conquered by the Babylonians.
The Major Babylonian king was King Hammurabi with the Law code of Retaliation. The Babylonians were conquered by the fierce assyrians.
The Assyrians were war-like, and had relief carvings. The were conquered by the indo-European Persians.
The Persians were Indo-European. Their famous prophet was Zoroaster, with his eastern method of meditation.
Egypt had 3000 years of unity due to the predictable nile river. They had pharoahs that were believed to be gods on earth. They believed in an afterlife,wrote in heiroglyphics, and had the first concept of monotheism.
Aegean Greece
The Evolved Minoans' king was King Minos, and they lived on the island of Crete. They were peaceful and lived in unfortified palace complexes, such as Knossos. They disappear.
The warring Mycenneans were a fierce people. They had weapons, gold artifacts, and fortified palaces. They are responsible for the Trojan War. They disappear.
Dark Ages
In the dark ages there is subsistence living only and the only culture is the retelling of Homer's Iliad and The Odyssey.
Archaic Age
Greek Culture is re-established. They have the first democracy, doric temples, the Kore, and pre-Socratic philosophers say "Man is the Measure of All Things." Victory in the Persian Wars is the only time that Greece is unified.
Classical Age
The Classical Age is a Golden Age and the arts soar. Pericles founds the Delian League (Military Defense Fund) and is accused of stealing from the MDF to beutify Athens when he builds the Parthenon. This causes disunity, which leads to civil war. The civil war is between Athens and Sparta. Sparta wins, and it is the death of culture and unity.
Late Classical
In the Late Classical period, Socrates is questioning all things in all areas. He is consigned to death and accepts his fate. He says, "No Man is Above the Law." His students are Aristotle and Plato. Phillip of Macedonia will reunify greece. He is assassinated and his son, Alexander the Great, builds a great empire. When Alexander dies, his empire is split into 3 territories.
Helenistic Age
During the helenistic age people are multi-cultural, multi-racial, and cosmopolotan. The Art is filled with drama and virtuosity.
The Evolved Etruscan engineers ruled over the Latin Romans. The Latin Romans rebel and start the Democratic Roman Republic.
Democratic Roman Republic
The Democratic Roman Republic Lasted for approximately 500 years. It consisted of a Senate with patricians, and an Assembly, with plebians. The Romans gave bread and circuses to the people. They built good roads and the Forum. They Copy everything Greek. The Punic and Galic Wars increase the territory, along with many other wars. COrruption and insensitivity cause civil wars.
Unrest - Civil Wars
Julius Caesar is victorious over Pompey. Julius Caesar also reforms the Law Code. The Senate is disturbed by J.C.'s alliance with Egypt and Cleopatra so they murder him. His best friend delivers the killing blow. Caesar utters, "Et tu Brute." Marc Antony and Octavius avenge caesar's death, but split over Antony's association with Cleopatra. Octavius wins and Antony dies. Octavius reforms the Roman Military and Beauracracy, wins over the people, and establishes the Roman Empire.
Roman Empire
Octavius names himself Augustus Caesar and ushers in the Pax Romana and a Golden Age. He starts a propaganda building program. Rome continues to expand its borders. There are many good emperors and many bad. One good emporer is Hadrian, who ushered in a second golden age, and build the Pantheon and Collesseum. Rome has a common language.
Fall of the Roman Empire
The Empire is too large and unwieldy. Some reasons for the collapse of Rome are: High taxes/inflation, lack of loyalty of foreigners in provinces, moving the capitol to Constantinople, growing power of the army, and Christianity. The Empire is split, and falls in the west. The eastern empire is assimilared into the Bysantine empire.
Byzantine Empire
The gothic Theodoric burns the Great Library in Alexandria, Egypt. Then, Justinian and Theodora, reform the law code and builds Hagia Sophia and St. Catherines Monestary in Egypt.
The Jews are a semetic tribe from Mesopotamia, that Abraham leads to canaan. Many Jews go to egypt where Joseph is a sypathetic ruler. The Egyptians reconquer Egypt. Moses receives the covenant from God in the form of the 10 commandments on Mt. Sinai. Moses leads the Jews out of Egypt on the Exodus, back to canaan, where they will install a Monarchy and have 3 kings. They will be conquered 3 times and dispursed untill 1943 when great Britian will give it back to them. The Jews' Holy Book is the Old Testament, which contains, laws, prophecy, and literature. They believe in the coming of the messiah.
Jesus was a Jewish reformer, who some say is the messiah. He teaches in parables, such as, The Sermon On The Mount. There are 5 tenants of Christianity: Forgiveness, Equality, Everlasting Life, Love, and Salvation. Jesus will be crucified, resurrected, and martyred. A peaceful Rome allows for the spread of Christianity. Saul of Tarsus (The Christian Persecutor) will convert and become the first missionary (Paul), and some say he was the key to spreading Christianity. Paul wrote 13 books of the Bible, which is the Christian Holy Book.
The Prophet Mohammed Received the last word of revelation from allah in the form of the koran, which is based on the 5 pillars of wisdom: Alms to the poor, fasting on Ramadan, Monotheism, pilgrimage to mecca once in a lifetime, and pray 5 times a day facing mecca. The only art allowed is calligraphy from the koran.
Barbarian Invasions/Early Medeival Period
Western Rome is taken over by warring Germanic Barbarians, creating a dark age. These Germanic tribes are governed with a system of feudelism. Feudalism is services for protection.
Charlemagne ushers in a golden age that recreates the Roman Empire. He establishes a monastic system and grammar schools. The major visual art form is Illuminated Manuscripts. Music is Gregorian Chant. The literature is the Epic Song of Roland. Charlemagne dies and his empire is fractured. This causes a dark age.
Romanesque Period
The dark age is lit by the crusades that will reunify europe, giving rise to the romanesque period with churches that fit the need of a mobile society, for crusaders and relics.
High Middle Ages
In the high middle ages, the Capetian Kings sieze power. Hugh Capet moves the capitol to Paris. Towns and monarchies compete with feudal lords. A university system is established because of the need to govern the complex towns. The three major universities are Oxford, Cambridge, and Paris. St. Fancis of Assisi receives the stigmata and ministers to the poor and the animals. A music notation system is developed by Arezzo.
During the Gothic Period Suger believes in the Dionysian Ideal of Mystical Light, where light is enlightenment. This influences architechture in the form of pointed arches, stained glass, and flying butresses. Gothic cathederals become town centers. Dante is a writer that uses the number 3 in his Divine Comedy. In the visual arts they are using mystical and other worldly types of images.
1400 - Proto Renaissance
During the proto renaissance the pope is imprisoned and abused until he dies. There is a split in the Roman Catholic Church, where there are 3 popes vying for power. The 100 years war is happening between France and England. The Bubonic Plague kills 1/3 to 1/2 of the european population. The Musical form is Ars Nova with 3rds and 6ths. In the visual arts there are Giotto with realism and naturalism.
1453 - ottoman Turks
In 1453 the Ottoman Turks invade and conquer Constantinople, shifting trade to the atlantic seaboard. This also caused greek, arabic and christian scholars to flee with thier texts to europe. The reniassance is the rebirth of classical humanistic thinking, which is first seen in the visual arts in the republican Florence, Italy. The Medici family are bankers, wool merchants, and patrons of the arts. They patronize great artists like Michealangelo, Donatello, and Botaccello

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