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EPPP Intelligence/School


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1. pioneer in measurement of individual differences
2. believed intelligence is unitary faculty, inherited trait, and distributed normally in population
Two-factor theory of intelligence
1. g = general ability, common to all intell. tasks
2. s = specific ability, specific to a given task
Primary Mental Abilities (word fluency, memory, spatial rel., reasoning)
Developed method of factor analysis
120 elements comprise intell.
Most well known dimensions:
1. divergent thinking - ability generate new ideas
2. convergent thinking - ability group and synthesize new ideas into unifying concept
1. Fluid intelligence - on-the-spot reasoning. Independent of education. Most susceptible to aging/brain damage
2. Crystallized intelligence - what learn in school. Remain stable w/age.
Viewed intelligence as global. Wechler scales measure diff ways intell can manifest itself not diff types of intell
Heredity vs. Environment in intelligence
50% heredity, 50% environ
- correlation coefficient of .50 for parent and child intelligence
-identical vs. fraternal twin studies
-individual attention affects IQ scores of retarded infants (Skeels)
Predictibility of intelligence (infants)
Low predictibility except in low-scoring babies. May help identify high risk for delays.
Gender differences in intelligence
Do not differ in general intell but in specific abilities. Females - verbal skills higher, Males - spatial ability higher.
Birth order effects on intelligence
First born greater intell than later born.
Confluence Model
Zajonc. As number of children in family increases, intellectual stim and resources for each child declines.
Race/Ethnicity and intelligence
Caucasians score higher than African Americans on IQ tests
Race of examiner and scores on intelligence tests
Race of examiner is unrelated to performance, rapport is related to performance.
Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale
Includes verbal and performance items grouped by age levels, age 2-adult (32.5).
Stanfort-Binet higher-level and content factors
3 higher level with 4 content factors:
1. Crystallized abilities
-a. Verbal reasoning
-b. Quantitative Reasoning
2. Fluid Analytic
-c. Abstract/Visual Reasoning
3. Short-Term Memory
-d. Short-Term Memory Reasoning
Ratio IQ vs. Deviation IQ
Ways intelligence is determined by Stanford-Binet.
1. Ratio-IQ - mental age (as determined by passed items)/chronological age X 100 (earlier way)
2. Scores are standardized with same mean and standard deviation across age levels. Advantage - scores can be compared across ages
Major changes in 1986 revision of Stanford-Binet
1. IQ replaced with SAS (standard age scores)
2. similar items grouped under subtests (like Wechsler)
3. entry level for subtest determined by score on vocab - helps differentiate between MR and LD.
WISC-III - stands for, age range, # subtests
Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children
6-16 years old
13 subtests
WPPSI - stands for, age range, # subtests
Wechsler Preschool Primary Scale of Intelligence
4-6.5 years old
11 subtests
WAIS-III - stands for, age range, # subtests
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale
16-89 years old
14 subtests
Wechsler scales vs. Stanford Binet
Stanford-Binet better to administer to people on extreme ends of intelligence continuum i.e. gifted or severely MR
WAIS and Alzheimer's
Predictible pattern of scores on indexes
WAIS and Hearing Impairment
P>V, lowest digit span
WAIS and Alcoholism
In intermediate-stage alcoholism, V>P with verbal in normal range. VCI>POI
Culture and the WAIS-III
African Americans and members of other ethnic groups on average perform more poorly than Caucasians.
Should supplement when testing non-Caucasians with other tests of non-verbal intelligence such as the Raven Progressive Matrices (like Matrix Reasoning test).
Gesell Developmental Schedules
measure of infant and early childhood development (4 wks-6yrs). Based on observations by caretaker and compared to established norms. Useful for suspected neuro or organic disorders.
Bayley Scales of Infant Development
Measure of development ages 2 mos-2.5 yrs. Considered best assessment measure of infant development. Mental scale and Motor scale.
Denver Developmental Scale
Screening test for developmental delays administered to infants and preschoolers. Typically used in medical settings.
Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales
Measures person's ability to care for himself. All ages. Domains: communicaion, daily living skills, socialization and motor skills.
Diagnosing MR
Must assess intelligence (IQ test - Stanford Binet)and adaptive behavior (Vineland, AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale, Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children)
Importance of non-verbal tests
1. To test intelligence for children with motor dysfunctions (i.e. cerebal palsy) and severe speech dysfunctions.
2. English second-language, including bilingual
3. Attempts to reduce cultural factors
Success of culture-free tests on measures of intelligence for minority children
Minority children have been found to do NO BETTER on non-verbal tests and they do on standard measures of intelligence
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test
Match given word to series of pics. Approp for: expressive lang disorders but hearing. 2.5-adult
Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
Which of set pics doesn't belong. IQ for 3.5 to 9.11 yrs. Approp for: children w/sensorimotor disorders & difficulties speaking/reading
Hiskey-Nebraska Test
Developed and standarized for deaf and hearing-impaired children, 3-16yrs.
Leiter International Performance Scale
Match blocks w/holes in pictures. Directions given nonverbally. Approp for: children w/reading or speaking problems, new immigrants, autism or slective mutism. Age 2-18.
Culture Fair Intelligence Test
Cattell. Age 4-16. Respond to picture and pattern stimuli.
Raven's Progressive Matrices
Used as assessment of perceptual ability and spatial logic (advanced levels). all ages.
System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment (SOMPA)
Measures both adaptive and cognitive abilities. Ages 5-11. Battery includes 6 measures:
1. adaptive behavior inventory
2. sociocultural scales
3. health inventory
5. Bender-Gestalt
6. Set physical desterity tasks
Derived index is Estimated Learning Potential Scale
Difference between aptitude and achievement tests
Aptitude tests measure specific of abilities. Designed as predictors of future behavior (i.e. GRE, SAT).
Achievement tests measure end result of a learning program - retention of content.
Not anything more than application of individuals general cognitive ability to test-taking task. Not a skill in itself.
Gifted children vs. non-giften children
Gifted achieve higher on measures of self-concept, especially in areas related to academics. Also better metacognitive skills. Process info more efficiently esp. on novel tasks.
Components of effective schools
1. strong leadership
2. structured, not oppressive atmosphere
3. teachers who participate in decision-making
4. high expectations of educational staff that kids will learn
5. emphasis on academics
6. frequent monitoring of student performance
small vs. large school
small schools are more effective. More exposure to opportunities/social roles
3 models of school consultation
1. mental health model - focus on resolving a problem with child
2. behavioral model - focus on problem with consultee i.e. parent, teacher, admin
3. Adlerian model - emphasis on prevention, educate parents/teachers
school interventions most effective
Those targeting the school environment rather than students directly.
Curriculum-Based Assessment
Assessment purpose is to identify progress of existing curriculum and any change of instruction (pace etc.) needed (not intended to bring about changes in curriculum itself)
Montessori Teaching Method
children are encouraged to take an active role in selecting own activities. Viewed as active learners who are naturally motivated to interact with their environment. Criticized for not providing cooperative/other-interactive activities.
Head Start results
Short term - increase IQ and academic achievement
Long term - decrease placement in SPED, increase probability grad high school, less delinquent behavior.
Bilingual Education
individuals in quality bilingual problams learn as well as all English programs.
Ability tracking
Grouping children according to ability level - negative effects for moderate & low achievers, few or no positive effects for high achievers.
Gender bias in school environment
Both male and female teachers pay more attention to boys than girls. Both positive and negative biases.
Jigsaw cooperative learning
each student given piece of info on a topic whole group is learning. Must teach other group members the info.
Research on cooperative learning
positive effect on student achievement and cross-ethnic friendships.
Success depended on level of student accountability
Education for All Handicapped Children Act public education available for all handicapped children ages 3-21
2. No single procedure shall be sole criterion for placement
3. IEP
4. When possible, mainstream
5. parents access to evals and reports
Buckley Amendment
students 18+ and parents have right to access children's educational records and challenge content
Issue of placement in special classes based on testing
1. Larry p. v. Riles - banned use of IQ score as criterion for placement
2. PACE v. Hannon - since IQ is only part of total assessment, does not imply bias in procedure
- issue is presently unresolved
Terman is best known for
Adapting the Binet intelligence tests for American use. Also, studies of gifted children

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