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First half of Cognitive Science


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who was BF skinner?
he was a behaviorist-you study people's minds in terms of given inputs and their ensuing outputs. mind as black box?
who strongly opposed skinner?
chomsky said that there was not a specific part for language. skinner thought it was like learning any other behavior. it needed structure-syntax
who had an important number?
george miller had a # that told how many items we can hold. it revealed our limitations
what did newell and simon come up with?
a series of mathematical proofs that use decution, detachment (working backwards) and substitions. human processes. showed that CPU's have AI
what are the three levels of analysis?
1. cognitive level-what are the mental representations
2.behavioral level-outcomes of stimuli
3.neural level-brain processes
What are David Marr's levels of analysis?
1.computational-determines goal
2.algorithmic-performs the algorithm
3.implementaion-hardware used
problems with marr's analysis?
1.higher levels constrained by lower levels.
2.too generally based on standard computer metaphor.
what was phrenology?
it was early modularity.
problems with phrenology?
1. size of brain region does not reflect strength of the region.
2.shape of skull/shake of brain
3.method was not objective
Describe Fodor's modularity?
everything is hardwired.
information encapsulation.
domain specificity
believed understand only modules.
what was fodor wrong about?
things aren't hardwird-it's malleable
information is not encapsulated
cognitive neuroscience has come to understand non-modular systems well.
What are darwin's requirements for natural selection?
1.variation in traits
2.which leads to variation in fitness
3.correllation of traits between parents and offspring
what is adaptionism?
structure reflects function. natural selectin chooses among various designs to see which one it likes.
what is the difference between sociobiology and evolutionary psychology?
fitness in past->psychological mechanisms->behavior
what is human kin detection?
there is an evolutionary advantage to help your kin. similarly, mating with your kin is disadvantageous.
what are the two primary types of cells in our brains?
neuron-primiary information processing cell
glia-does energy metabolism, and helps structural integrety of brain tissue
what is the grey and white matter?
white matter is the axon covered in myelin.
grey matter is the cell body
what is an action potential?
when dendrites reach a theshold level, it sends an electrical empulse that heads down to the axon terminal. it fires because of opening and closing of ion channels.
how many neural transmitters are fired from one cell to the next and what are the differenct kinds?
there are about 1,000 -10,000 synapses. excitory-increase firing in post-synaptic neuron.
inhibitory- does opposite
how can we study the brain?
study patients with brain lesions. or we can run EEG (which measure electrical activity at the scalp) and MRI that measures blood flow.
what area can see particular loctaions of edge detection?
V1 area
depth perception has two kinds of cues. what are they?
monocular-makes guesses about features.interposition, relative size, linear perspective
binocular-binocular disparity
what parts of brain deal with motion detection?
small receptive fields:V1, retina-help see local motion
large receptive fields: medial temporal-global motion. MT neurons adapt. tricked
what is the process of object recognition?
stimulus comes in. finds a match between the representation in the STM and the LTM
what is evidence for view based recognition?
we recognize things from particular view points.
what are the two kinds of object recognition?
view-based theory and structural based theory.
who ran an experiment to support the structural based theory?
Biederman and Cooper
what part of brain is necessary for object reognition?
inferior temporal lobe
What i Posner's cue paradigm?
if we have a cue, and then something shows up, we are better at detecting the cue if the cue helps us.
what is spatial neglect? what part of brain damage will cause this?
leaving out half of your vision. your parietal lobe is necessary for this.
what is decibel scale?
for every 20 decibels, it is 10 times louder.
what are the two ways your basilar membrane handles sound?
place coding-certain ptiches require certain parts of the membrane to fire
timing coding-each time a wave comes in a neoron fires. need volley principal
what is azimuth?
the angel at which we hear. if there is a higher frequency, it will cast a bigger shadow on us. the signals in both ears will meet in midbrain.
what does cross modal perception suggest?
it suggests that modularity is wrong because something i see will affect what i hear.
What are the two ways we categorize?
dimension representation: symmetry, minimality and triangularity.
feature list-similarity is determined by an overlap of common features
what are the three theories on how we categorize things?
classical theory: no specifics, just rules
prototype: average of that category
exemplar: category made by all of our experiences.
what parts of the brain are necessary for learning cateogories?
frontal lobe and basal ganglia
what are two types of good reasoning?
modus ponens-if a, then b; a, therefore b
modus tollens- if a, then b; not b; therefore not a
what are two types of bad deductive reasoning?
denial of the antecedent: if a, then b; not a, therefore not b
affirming the consequent: if a, then b; b; therefore a
what did cosmides argue that people were good at in regards to deductive reasoning?
things that we have dealt with in evolution. eg detecting cheaters
what did the test with rats, sweetness, and shock reveal?
that we have biases in our perception of things. sometimes affect how we reason.
what is base-rate neglect?
we tend to use a representative heuristic which cause us to think illogically.
what is an availability heuristic?
the probability of an event is related on how easily it can be grought to our mind.
what are the two key components to rational decision making?
utility-how important something is
probablity-likelihood of that outcome
what are speech sounds limited to?
sounds that can be produced by vocal apparatus and those that can be easily heard by the auditory system.
what are the three articulatory features?
man. of articulation-air goes, constricted
manner of voicing- when voc. chords vib.
place of articulation-constriction occur
for what sounds do vocal chords vibrate early? late?
early- /g/ /v/ /d/ /b/ /z/
this is VOT!!!!!!!
late- /c/ /f/ /t/ /p/ /s/
what is coarticulation?
it occurs when acoustic features of each phoneme overlap in the acoustic signal. how a phoneme sounds depends on what proceeds and follows it.
what are two theories of speech perception?
motor theory-we somehow recreate physical articulatory speech
acoustic invariant-speech is like any other sound. uses vowels to determine words
what are a couple of disorder in speech perception?
pure word deafness- cannot discriminate between sounds
wernicke's aphasia-can't understand meaning of words
what are three types of speech errors?
syntax-work substitutions
morphology-word endings
phonology-phoneme substitutions
what part of brain help speech production? two main problems.
prefrontal cortex.
agrammatism-scattered words, makes now sense
aphraxia of speech-cannot produced desired sounds
why is language development interesting?
induction problem-gavagai
mapping problem-material over color
high growth rate
what is the nativist view? what is evidencte that supports it?
that there is a specialized module for language development. damage to Weirneke's area creates impairted speech
what is the interactionist view?
language development is based on our interaction with others. it could not produce it on its own. this supported by IDS worldwide
what is the connectionist view?
believes that there is not module for learning, but we have parts for expertise. it occurs because neurons repeatedly fire togther. Weirnecke's area
what are the two functions of working memory?
maintenance: holding info immeditaly in mind.
manipulation: performing operations on the maintained information
what does the serial postion curve reveal?
that long term and working memory are different.
what are the three components of working memory?
phonological loop, visuospatial buffer, and central executive.
what are the two parts of the phonological loop?
phonological store- a limited amount of information.
rehearsal process-recirculates the contents of the store
what does the central executive do?
1. keeps goals in mind
2. chooses which part of memory to work with
3. scheduling- decides order
what are the four components of a problem?
1. goal
3.means of transformation
what are the states of long-term memory?
1.encoding-placing information into memory thie info in a store
3.retrieval-bring info out of store
what are the princiapls of encoding and retreival
1.levels of processing: shallow vs. deep
2.transfer- appropriate: deep not best
3.encoding specificity:info retrieval cue must match memory
is our memory reconstructive?
yes- we use our knowledge about the world to reconstruct our memories
what are the three ways we forget things?
1. decay theory-memories are lost
2. retrieval-we need correct cues
3.repression: purposely forget
what are the types of amnesia?
retrograde: loss of memories prior to the event.
anterograde: inablitliy to for new memories
what parts of the brain are important for forming new memories?
frontal lobe and the hippocampus.

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