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Psych Ch. 10

Terms

undefined, object
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phonemes
the smallest units of sound in a language that are distinctive for speakers of the language
insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem. Insight contrasts with trial and error and, indeed, may often follow an unsuccessful episode of trail and error
overconfidence
the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
representativeness heuristic
the tendency to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they conform to one's prototypes
syntax
the aspect of grammar specifying the rules for combining words into grammatical sentences in a given language
cognition
the mental activity associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating information
prototype
the best example of a particular category
computer neural networks
computer circuits that simulate the brain's interconnected neural cells and perform tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
two-word stage
the stage in which children, around age 2, speak mostly in two-word sentences
morphemes
the smallest units of language that convey meaning
heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently. Although heuristics are more efficient than algorithms, they do not guarantee success and sometimes even impede problem solving
belief perserverance
the tendency for people to cling to a particular belief even after the information that lead to the formation of the belief is discredited
babbling stage
a stage of speech development, which begins at 3 to 4 months, which is characterized by the spontaneous utterance of speech sounds. During the babbling stage, children the world over sound alike
availability heurisitc
estimating the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind
telegraphic speech
the economical, telegram-like speech of children in the two-word stage. Utterances consist mostly of nouns and verbs; however, words occur in the correct order, showing that the child has learned some of the language's syntactic rules
one-word stage
a stage of linguistic development, between 1 and 2 years of age in which children speak mostly in single words
artificial intelligence (AI)
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes
confirmation bias
an obstacle to problem solving in which people tend to search for information that validates their preconceptions
grammar
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
fixation
an inability to approach a problem in a new way
semantics
the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules used to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language
concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, or people
mental set
the tendency to continue applying a particular problem-solving strategy even when it is no longer helpful
functional fixedness
a type of fixation in which a person can think of things only in terms of their usual functions
framing
the way an issue or question is posed. it can affect people's perception of the issue or answer to the question
algorithm
a methodical, logical procedure that, while sometimes slow, guarantees success
belief bias
the tendency for a person's preexisting beliefs to distort his or her logical reasoning
language
spoken, written, or gestured words and how we combine them to communicate meaning
linguistic determinism
Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think

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