This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

Ch 21, 22, 23 Azaroff


undefined, object
copy deck
Extinction Burst
A temporary increase in the rate and intensity of various responses (the target behavior, aggression, crying, and or other more primitive behavior previously followed by the reinforcer) immediately after the cessation of reinforcement or the introduction of extinction.
Extinction-Induced Aggression
Aggressive behavior that often accompanies extinction in its early phases, in the absence of any other identifiable precipitating events.
Correspondence training
Delivering reinforcers contingent on correspondence or agreement between verbal reports (saying) and actions (doing). For example, the teacher praised Diane only after she actually played with the crayons when she had previously said she would. Mother loaned Bill the car when he said that he helped Jan with her math, because she saw that he did actually help her with her math.
What are two procedures you can use to teach correspondence? Explain.
Modeling-reinforce models' honest reporting of their appropriate social behaviors, such as sharing and praising.Chaining-Break the behavior down into its components to use the chaining procedures.
Problems in rule formulation of the verbal community
problems may arise in subcultures which fail to develop adequate rules or yield inaccurate rules. For example, if a subculture develops rules to discourage seeking medical attention for life-threatening diseases.
Rule governed behavior vs Contingency shaped behavior
Subject's who were told to press a button to receive points were less likely to change their behavior when the contingencies changed than subjects who learned to press the button through shaping and successive approximations.
Methods for assessing the social validity of outcomes include
a.Comparing participants' performance to the performance of a normative sample b.Using a standardized assessment instrument c.Asking consumers to rate the social validity of participants' performance d.Asking experts to evaluate participants' performance e.Testing participants' newly learned level of performance in the natural environment
Problems in self-rule formulation
formulating self-rules (e.g. "no snacking after 9pm") is one way of controlling impulsive acts and other behaviors controlled by direct contingencies. Problems arise if (1) a person fails to formulate worthwhile rules, or (2) a person formulates inaccurate or unrealistic rules.
Direct Replication
To repeat or duplicate an experimental procedure, usually to demonstrate its reliability by reproducing the results.
What is meant by Rule Governed Behavior?
A person's behavior is controlled by verbal or textual antecedents.
How did Skinner expand the definition of communicative behavior?
Skinner broadened the term beyond vocal speech to include gestures and other forms of nonverbal (i.e. non-vocal) communication - writing, typing, signing, PECS, etc.
Internal Validity
A feature that describes how correct or valid conclusions are about the functionality of a relationship between two variables, such as a procedure and changes in behavior; addresses the validity of the answer to the question, "did the treatment bring about the behavior change?"
Systematic Replication
a.The researcher purposefully varies one or more aspects of an earlier experiment. b.Demonstrates generality of a finding to other conditions c.Any aspect of a previous experiment can be altered: subjects, setting, administration of the independent variable, target behaviors
Reducing the frequency of a previously reinforced behavior by withholding reinforcement. Extinction as a procedure provides zero probability of reinforcement.
Sequence Effects
A situation in which one experimental treatment phase within the experiment influences subsequent performance during another treatment phase.
Alternating (multielement) Treatment Design
A within-subject or intensive experimental design consisting of alternating presentations of two or more independent variable arrangements, each of which is correlated with a distinctive stimulus. The differential effects then are observed by comparing performance under each of the variables.
What is correspondence training and what is one way it can benefit children with communication delays?
Correspondence training teaches children to produce their own verbal cues and enhances the controlling function of such cues. Correspondence training can help a child accurately say what they did this morning or accurately report what they will do this afternoon. Correspondence research addresses how we learn to say what we do or to do what we say. Training is accomplished through reinforcing correspondence between what people do and say, using modeling or chaining.
Communicative (verbal) behavior
Behavior reinforced through the mediation of another person's behavior. Using words and other forms of symbolic communication enables us to attain reinforcement more efficiently, (i.e. efficiently get what you want and avoid what you don't want).
A failure to follow rules
rules are often devised to compete with the immediate reinforcement of such behaviors as stealing, raping, using drugs, etc. Rule following involves three aspects: (1) being able to describe accurately the function of the rules to oneself or other (to understand the rule) - a setting event, (2) labeling circumstances as discriminative stimuli for which a particular rule applies, and (3) following the rule (the response)
Why are inaccurate rules that lead to ineffectual behavior followed?
At times, people fail to discriminate between accurate and inaccurate rules. We become so accustomed to following rules, that we may become less aware of the contingencies of reinforcement that are actually occurring in the situation versus what we know to be the rules of the situation.
Difficulty in rule specification
Adequately specifying rules can be very difficult when the context of the behavior is extensive, complicated, or dependent on changing contextual factors (like "social skills").
Educational Significance
An assessment that considers whether change occurred as a function of the program, the intervention was implemented as specified, and if the intervention was beneficial to the student and those in his or her environment.
What are some examples of problems that may be encountered in communicative behaviors?
1.Inadequate verbal repertoires - if an individual can not ask for what they want or use words to rid themselves of aversive stimuli, they are more likely to engage in problem behavior to escape demand situations.
Spontaneous Recovery
The reappearance of a response that had not occurred for an extended time interval during extinction conditions. Resurgence: Robert Epstein (personal communication) prefers the term resurgence because the phenomenon is not random but controlled by the state of the organism's conditioning history and current circumstances, as are all forms of operant responding.
How can you judge the social significance of an applied behavior analysis study?
Social Validity of an applied behavior analysis can be assessed in three ways: a) The social significance of the target behavior, b) the appropriateness of the procedures, and c) the social significance of the results.
External Validity
In behavioral programs, it is important to know whether the procedures have generality beyond the original set of cases, to other people, behaviors, or settings.
Positive Scanning
Focusing one's attention on desirable rather than unwanted behavior, often by recording it. The positive scanners tend to "notice" and hence reinforce positive behaviors more and negative behaviors less.
Sequential Withdrawal Design
An experimental design in which first one element of the treatment is withdrawn, then a second, and so on, until all elements have been withdrawn; particularly well suited to assessing behavior for maintenance.
Behavioral Laws
Principles of behavior that have been demonstrated to possess very broad generality. Examples include immediacy and schedule of reinforcement, which have both been demonstrated repeatedly to be effective across populations, behaviors, and varied conditions.
Basic design includes
a.An initial probe is taken to determine the level of performance on each behavior in the sequence prior to baseline b.A series of baseline measures is obtained on each step prior to training on that step c.After the behavior reaches criterion on any step, a probe of each step in the sequence is obtained to determine whether performance changes have occurred in any other steps.
External Validity
The correctness or validity of conclusions about the generalizability of a functional relationship to and across other people, behaviors, or settings.
Multiple Probe Design
Probing or measuring untreated responses intermittently to assess any variations in those responses due to unidentified condition(s).
Internal Validity
In behavioral programs, it is important to look at how convincingly the procedures can be shown to relate functionally to changes in behavior. Single-case designs are well suited to this concern because they rule out confounding variables.
Social Validity
A feature of measured results that includes (1) the social significance or importance of the goals, (2) the social appropriateness of the procedures, and (3) the social importance of the effects.
Contingency shaped behavior
Behavior that has been learned by experiencing the consequences directly.
Explain the relationship that contingency-specifying stimuli have to rule governed behavior.
Words function as discriminative stimuli, describing the relations between the response and its consequences and antecedents. It is not behavior that has been shaped by direct exposure to the contingencies specified. For example, you don't have to experience the alarm sounding to avoid walking through a door marked "Emergency exit only. Opening door will activate alarm."
Direct Replication
a.The researcher makes every effort to duplicate exactly the conditions of an earlier experiment b.Demonstrates the reliability of a functional relation.
Any of a set of physical properties whose values determine the characteristics of a behavior, such as schedule and quantity or quality of reinforcers. Differences in parametric values may influence how rapidly, effectively, safely, constructively, durably, and so on, that a given behavior changes.
4. Changing-Criterion Design
a.Requires baseline data b.Focuses on a single target behavior c.Baseline phase is followed by treatment phases, which includes a step-wise change in criterion for the target behavior d.Each phase of the design provides a baseline for the following phase. e.When stable responding is attained within each phase of the design, a prediction of future responding is made. A prediction can be made from previous phases that the level of responding will not change if the criterion is not changed. f.Replication occurs each time the level of behavior changes in a systematic way when the criterion is changed.
Multiple Treatment Interference
A condition in which one treatment's history influences the performance under a subsequent treatment. Observed changes in the independent variable (the behavior receiving treatment) then would be confounded by the prior treatment, rather than being a function of the designated independent variable.
Excessive rule following
in some instances, certain rules have been ingrained into an individual that even direct experience to the contrary cannot overcome the effects of the rule (e.g. "only bad things happen on Friday the 13th). People may become insensitive to direct contingencies when verbal control is well established.
Clinical (social, personal) Significance
The change is considered clinically significant if the pre-stated objective is obtained, and/or when the behavior change has spurred correlated (ecological) changes for the participants, and their physical and social environments.
Changing-Criterion Design
An applied behavior analysis design that involves successively changing the criterion for delivering consequences, usually in graduated steps from baseline levels to a desired terminal goal. Experimental control is demonstrated if the behavior changes to meet or approximate each successively set criterion level.
VARIABLES of resistance to extinction
a)Intermittent reinforcement schedules: may produce behavior with greater resistance to extinction than the resistance produced by continuous reinforcement. VR and VI schedules may produce more resistance than others (FR, FI). To a degree, the thinner the intermittent schedule of reinforcement, the greater the resistance to extinction will be.b)Establishing operation: resistance to extinction will be greater if there is a high level of motivation to continue the behavior.c)Number, magnitude and quality of reinforcement: If a behavior has produced reinforcement for a long period of time, it will be more difficult to extinguish that behavior. Likewise, if a reinforcer is of great magnitude and quality, it might produce more resistance to existence than a reinforcer with less magnitude and quality.d)Previous extinction trials: If a behavior is diminished during extinction, and then accidentally strengthened with reinforcement, the extinction procedure is reapplied. With each successive application of extinction, decreases in the behavior become increasingly quicker. e)Response effort: A response requiring greater effort diminishes more quickly during extinction than a response requiring less effort.
Systematic Replication
To repeat or duplicate experimental results despite varying a number of conditions, such as task, setting or other parameters of the basic procedures. Gives evidence for generality of the principle.
Experimental Significance
In determining experimental significance we ask what the behavior would be if the experimental intervention had not occurred. Did the treatment result in a meaningful change in the behavior?
Principles of Behavior
Lawful relations between behavior and the variables that control it, discovered through experimental analyses of behavior. Behavioral principles may help to explain prior and present performance and to predict future behavior, because the relations have been found to apply across responses, people, and contexts. Rules describing reliable effects of direct replication are also know as principles of behavior.
Incidental teaching
Teaching toward specific, predetermined objectives, by capitalizing on natural unplanned opportunities, as in temporarily blocking a child's access to an item until particular adjectives are used to request the object.
resistance to extinction
Continued responding of the target behavior during the extinction procedure.
A procedure in which the reinforcement of a previously reinforced behavior is discontinued. Also may be used to describe the "process" by which a previously learned behavior disappears as a result of non-reinforcement.

Deck Info