Big Exam
Terms
undefined, object
copy deck
 Reciprocal Determinism

Social learning theorists.
An interactive triad of the person, his/her bx, and the environment regulate the individual's bx.  Autonomic Nervous System
 Controls automatic or involuntary bodily functions of the smooth muscles and glands, including digestion, heart rate, and breathing. Primary function is to maintain HOMEOSTASIS. Divided into sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
 Spinal Cord Divisions

Thoracic = C1C7
Lumber = T1T12
Sacral = S1  Quadriplegia

Severing between C1 and C5
(all 4 limbs)  Paraplegia

Severing at C6 or C7
(paralysis in the legs and partial paralysis of the arms)
Severing at T1 or lower
(paralysis in the legs)  Gerstmann's Syndrome
 Lesions of the dominant parietal lobe and results in agraphia, acalculia, rightleft disorientation, and finger agnosia.
 Thalamus

Major sensory relay center.
Receives input from all senses except olfaction.
Critical in the perception of pain.
Abnormalities have been linked to schizophrenia.  Limbic System

Hypothalamus, Hippocampus, Amygdala, Septum, parts of the Thalamus, and parts of the Frontal and Temporal Lobes.
Involved with emotional bx, particularly aggression.  Amygdala

Stimulating increases aggression.
Removal resulst in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.  Septum

Moderating effect on aggression.
Damage can result in rage.  KluverBucy Syndrome
 Damage or removal of the amygdala that results in placidity, apathy, hyperphagia, hypersexuality, and agnosias.
 Classical Neurotransmitters
 Acetylcholine, the Catecholamines, Serotonin, and the Amino Acids.
 Acetylcholine

Most common NT.
Voluntary movement and memory and cognition.
Prevalent in hippocampus.
Deficiency involved in Alzheimer's.  Catecholamines

Dopamine and Norepinephrine.
Synthesized from dietary tyrosine and phenylalanine.  Norephinephrine

Noradrenaline
Involved in mood, pain perception, and sleep.  Catecholamine Hypothesis of Affective Disorders
 Depression is associated with a relative deficiency of catecholamines, especially norepinephrine, while mania is associated with a relative excess of catecholamines.
 Permissive Hypothesis of Serotonin Functioning
 A deficiency in serotonin permits the expression of affective disorders, but it is not sufficient in and of itself. Both mania and depression are characterized by low levels of serotonin, but differ in terms of high versus low norepinephrine.
 Addison's Disease
 Undersecretion of corticosteroids, or adrenal insufficiency, with sx of apathy, weakness, irritability, depression, and GI disturbance.
 Cushing's Disease
 Oversecretion of corticosteroids (adrenal cortex) with sx of agitated depression, irritability and emotional lability, difficulties with memory and concentration, and even suicide. Adiposity (swelling and fattening) of the face, neck, and trunk.
 Apraxia
 Inability to carry out purposeful motor movements. Leftbrain lesion.
 Dementia

MEMORY PLUS
Impairment in memory plus at least one of the following four conditions:
aphasia
apraxia
agnosia
disturbance in executive functioning  Postconcussion Syndrome

headache, dizziness, fatigue, diminished concentration, memory deficit, irritability, anxiety, insomnia, hypochondriacal concern, hypersensitivity to noise, and photophobia.
MOST COMMON: IRRITABILITY, FATIGUE, HEADACHE, DIZZINESS  Delirium
 Acute onset and fluctuating course, clouded sensorium, and most likely reversable.
 Sleep Stages

1 = little alpha, predominance of theta
2 = spindles (greatest amount of time)
3 and 4 = delta (hard to awaken)
REM = EEG patterns of stage 1 with rapid eye movement  Generalized Seizures

Tonic Clonic (Grand Mal)
Petit Mal (absence)  Partial Seizures

Simple Partial (focal are of brain only)
Jacksonian (initially localized w/ spread to adjacent areas)
Complex Partial (aura, purposeless bx, lip smacking, unintelligible speech)  General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

Hans Selye
Response to severe stress.
Alarm
Resistance
Exhaustion  Chlorpromazine
 Thorzine (traditional antipsychotic)
 Prolixin
 Fluphenazine (traditional antipsychotic)
 Stelazine
 Trifluoperazine (traditional antipsychotic)
 Haldol
 haloperidol (traditional antipsychotic)
 Navane
 thiothixene (traditional antipsychotic)
 Mellaril
 thioridazine (traditional antipsychotic)
 Clozaril
 clozapine (novel antipsychotic)
 Risperdal
 risperidone (novel antipsychotic)
 Zyprexa
 olanzapine (novel antipsychotic)
 Seroquel
 quetiapine (novel antipsychotic)
 Extrapyramidal Sx (EPS)

Movementrelated sx which are the most potentially damaging side effects of antipsychotics.
Dystonia (muscle spasms of neck, back, tongue, eyes or larynx)
Parkinsonism (mask like face, shuffle)
Akathisia
Treated with anticholinergic agents (Cogentin, Artane)
**Risperdal and Zyprexa do not cause.  Elavil
 amitryptyline (TCA)
 Anafranil
 clomipramine (TCA)
 Tofranil
 imipramine (TCA)
 Prozac
 fluoxetine (SSRI)
 Zoloft
 sertraline (SSRI)
 Paxil
 paroxetine (SSRI)
 Nardil
 phenelzine (MAOI)
 Parnate
 tranylcypromine (MAOI)
 Wellbutrin
 bupropion (other)
 Xanax
 alprazolam (anxiolytic)
 Klonopin
 clonazepam (anxiolytic)
 Valium
 diazepam (anxiolytic)
 Ativan
 lorazepam (anxiolytic)
 Restoril
 temazepam (sed/hyp)
 Halcion
 triazolam (sed/hyp)
 Ambien
 zolpidem (sed/hyp)
 Tegretol
 carbamazapine (anticonvulsant)
 Neurontin
 gabapentin (anticonvulsant)
 Depakote
 divalproex (anticonvulsant)
 Dexedrine
 dextroamphetamine (stimulant)
 Ritalin
 methylphenidate (stimulant)
 Malpractice Lawsuit
 Dereliction of Duty Directly causing Damages
 Preamble of Ethics Code
 Goals are "the welfare and protection of the individuals and groups with who psychologists work," as well as "the education of members, students, and the public regarding ethical standards of the discipline."
 Consultation
 Somewhat familiar with treating a particular disorder but not an expert in that area or concerns about remaining objective.
 Supervision
 Applying a newly learned technique or beginning work with a specialized population.
 Training
 Unfamiliar with a certain area of knowledge.
 Referring Out
 therapist's personal beliefs interfer with the therapy, client feels uncomfortable with therapist, or therapist lacks competence in treating the presenting problem.
 Statements by Others
 Psychologists retain responsibility for public statements even when they hire someone to promote them or their practice. Must prevent others from making deceptive statements and correct them when possible. Prohibited to compensate a media employee for publicity. When paid ads are used, must be identified.
 In Person Solicitation
 Prohibited when people are vulnerable to undue influence.
 Payments and FeeSplitting
 Must be based on services provided. May never pay another professional for a referral.
 Student Disclosure of Information
 Prohibited unless it is necessary to help students who are having personal problems that interfere with clinical work or pose a risk of harm.
 Professional Psychologists
 Doctoral degree in psychology from an organized, sequential program in a regionally accredited university or professional school.
 Records

Full Record = 3 years after tx complete
Full Record or Summary = 12 years
Dispose of no earlier than 15 years after tx complete.  Buckley Amendment

FERPA
Protects the privacy of student records in higher education institutions.  Right of Accounting
 Patients have the right to recieve an accounting of all the disclosures of their PHI for the past 6 years.
 Griggs Versus Duke Power Company
 I/O Case affected the issue of testing in the workplace. Tests that measured broad abilities, in which minorities passed at lower rates, were unfair to use to make decisions of hiring and promotion. **Tests must measure skills necessary for a particular job.
 Adverse Impact

4/5ths Rule
Percentage of minorities selected must be at least 4/5ths of the percentage of nonminorities selected.
(selection rate of nonminorities x .8)  Unfairness
 Minorities and nonminorities score differently on the predictor test yet perform similarly on the criterion. (2 parallel lines)
 Differential Validity

Significantly different criterionrelated validity coefficients for different ethnic groups on the same test. More valid for predicting performance of one group than another.
**Actually rarely occurs. Result of low sample size.  Critical Incident Technique
 Method of obtaining data for a job analysis. Involves ascertaining the specific actions that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job.
 Multiple Regression Approach

Selection Procedure
Compensatory Technique
Low scores on one predictor can be compensated for by high scores on another predictor.  Multiple Cutoff

Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique
Only applicants who meet or exceed the cutoff on each of the predictors will be considered.  Multiple Hurdle

Selection Procedure
Noncompensatory Technique
The predictors are applied in a particular order, and an applicant must pass the cutoff score on the first predictor in order to continue on in the selection process.
**Efficient and Cost Effective  BARS (Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales)

Evaluation method where behavioral anchors are based on critical incidents.
Problem = Scale development is expensive and time consuming, scales do not tend to measure actual day to day activities, but rather hypothetical situations.  Training and Individual Differences
 Overall, training does not always equalize differences in ability; it may actually magnify them.
 Holland's PersonalityJob Fit Theory
 Individuals and job traits can be matched and close matches will correlate with job success and satisfaction. (RIASEC)
 Congruence

Holland
Degree of match between the personality type and the work environment.
High = Longevity at the job  Consistency

Holland
How closely related an individual's first two code letters are on the hexagon.
Higher = stability in work hx  Differentiation

Holland
Distinctness of a profile.
(the more an individual is represented by one personality type, the more distinct)  Environmental Identity

Holland
Individual's view that the work environment has a clear and stable system of goals and rewards.  Vocational Identity

Holland
Clarity and stability of an individual's own goals and interests.
High = Make decisions more easily and with greater confidence  Super's Life/Career Rainbow

Career decision making involves a range of changes and decisions from career entry to retirement (developmental).
Growth (to 14)
Exploratory (1524)
Establishment (2544)
Maintenance (4564)
Decline/Disengagement (65+)
**Career patterns are determined by SES, abilities, personal characteristics, and opportunities.
**life roles
**Express selfconcept through vocation  Krumboltz's Social Learning Theory

(developmental)
Career development is based on social learning, environmental conditions and events, genetic influences, and learning experiences.
**Choose career based on what you have learned through modeling and reinforcement.  Tiedeman and O'Hara's Theory of Career Development

Differentiation = distinctions about different aspects of oneself and environment.
Integration = unifying different aspects which results in better decision making, more refined goals, and more useful plans.  Schein's Career Anchor Theory
 Person's selfconcept acts as an anchor, or stabilizing force, determining what future occupational decisions will be made.
 Cognitive Resource Theory

(Leadership)
Looks at whether directive vs. nondirective leadership style will be more effective depending on the cognitive resources of the employees as well as stress levels, experience of leader, and group support for leader.  Vroom and Yetton's Normative Model

(Leadership)
Decision Making
Extent to which leaders allow their subordinates to participate in making decisions.  House's PathGoal Theory

(Leadership)
Recommends that the leader increase personal payoffs for subordinates and make the paths to the payoffs easier by clarifying and reducing roadblocks.  Hersey and Blanchard's Situational Leadership

(Leadership)
Employees' Readiness to Perform
If not ready, tell them what to do.
If more ready, need less task orientation.
(Telling, Selling, Participating, and Delegating)  Most Important Reason for Complying with a Manager's Request
 Presence of the combination of expert and referent power (incremental power).
 RationalEconomic Model

(classical approach)
Involves basing decisions on a clear definition of the problem, knowing all possible alternatives and consequences of choices, and then choosing the optimum solution.  Administrative Approach

(behavioral) (satisficing style)
Herbert Simon
Used when problems are ambiguous, only partial knowledge is available, and the first satisfactory alternative is chosen.  Job Enrichment

Giving employees a greater role in planning and performing their work (opportunity for satisfiers)
"Vertical Loading"
=increased satisfaction and performance, decreased turnover, and decreased absenteeism  Job Enlargement

Expands the variety of tasks the employee performs without increasing responsibility or autonomy.
"Horizontal Loading"
=Increased satisfaction and only slightly affects job performance  Alderfer's ERG Theory
 Divides needs into those based on existence, relatedness, and growth. All needs may influence at the same time. If person is frustrated, will move towards a previously met need. Satisfying a need may make the need even stronger.
 McClelland's Acquired Needs Theory

TAT to measure needs.
nACH  need for achievement
nAFF  need for affiliation
nPOWER  need for power
*Needs are acquired over time.
**People can be trained to think more like high nACH people.  General Expectancy Theory/Vroom's ValenceInstrumentalityExpectancy (VIE)Theory

People behave in ways that are based on their perceived expectancy that certain rewards will follow.
Expectancy = success on the task
Instrumentality = rewards
Valence = value of rewards to person  Adam's Equity Theory
 Ratio of selfinputs/self outcomes vs. others' inputs/outcomes. Based on Social Comparison Theory.
 Locke's Goal Setting Approach

1  goals should be specific
2  goals should be of intermediate to high level of difficulty
3  workers must receive feedback
4  a sense of selfefficacy will increase performance
5  employees must accept the goals**  Organizational Development
 Focuses on total organizational change and on systematic ways to bring about planned change.
 Stages of Group Development

Forming
Storming
Norming
Performing
Adjourning  Ideal Group Size for Decision Making
 5 or 7
 Implosive Therapy

Stampfl
Conducted in imagination only. After the pt. is exposed to the feared object in imagination, the therapist interprets possible psychosexual themes.  SelfControl Procedures

SelfReinforcement
SelfMonitoring (detailed record of what one does)
Stimulus Control (narrowing the range of stimuli that elicit a particular bx)  Overcorrection
 Type of punishment that involves restitution or reparation, as well as physical guidance.
 Kohler
 Insight studies with chimps.
 Tolman
 Latent Learning
 Ellis  Rational Emotive Therapy

Approaches problems in a direct and straight forward way by convincing pts of their irrationality.
Irrational Beliefs
ABC Model (Activating event, Belief, Consequence)
Direct Instruction, Persuasion, and Logical Disputation
Active and Confrontative  Beck  Cognitive Therapy

Empirical hypothesis testing as a means of changing existing beliefs.
Socratic Questioning (collaborative)
Psych sx result from maladaptive thoughts (automatic and very often occur outside of cs awareness)
Logical Errors, Faulty Conceptions, Self Signals
*Depression results from a maladaptive cognitive triad.
**Goal = identify and test negative cognitions, to develop more flexible schemas, and to rehearse new cog and bx responses.  Meichenbaum  Cognitive Bx Modification

SelfInstruction Therapy
Stress Inoculation Training
**focus on "selfstatements"
Collaboration
Socratic Style  SelfInstruction Therapy

Meichenbaum
Combines modeling and graduated practice with ret to help pts that have problems with taks completion.
1. Therapist Modeling 2. Therapist Verbalization 3. Pt Verbalization
4. Pt Silently Talks Through the Task
5. Independent Task Performance
**ADHD  Stress Inoculation Training

Meichenbaum
**PTSD
Bolstering of pt.'s repertoire of coping responses to milder stressors can decrease susceptibility to more severe stress.  Rehm  Self Control Model of Depression
 Depression is a result of negative selfevaluations, lack of selfreinforcement, and high rates of selfpunishment.
 Ego Psychology

Focus on the ego's capacity for integration and adaptation.
Hartmann
A. Freud
Erikson  Object Relations Theory
 Deals with capacity to have mutually satisfying interpersonal relationships.
 NeoFreudians

Focus on the impact of social and cultural factors in determining personality.
Sullivan
Horney
Fromm  Sullivan

Interpersonal Theory
Personality exists only in an emotional exchange between people.
Prototaxic (07 mos)serial sensation
Parataxic (811 mos)sequential sensation
Syntaxic (12 mos2 yrs)causal sensation  Karen Horney

Neurosis develops from feelings of alienation, basic anxiety, and basic hostility that result from the child's discovery of helplessness in the face of allpowerful, indifferent adults.
Moving Toward, Moving Against, Moving Away  Erich Fromm

Marx and Existentialist philosophers
Man's bx results from sociocultural and economic conditions.
Having Mode and Being Mode  Adler  Individual Psychology

Striving for superiority and personal competence. Motivated by social (aggressive) drives. Feelings of inferiority that motivate mastery or contribute to neurosis.
Teleological View of Bx  Systematic Training in Effective Parenting (STEP)

Adler
Democratic approach to parenting that values and respects the child's contribution. Use natural and logical consequences of bx as the basis of discipline.  (Adler/Dreikers) Child's Misbx Results From 4 Mistaken Goals

1. Attention
2. Control/Power
3. Revenge
4. Desire to be left alone  Rogers  Client Centered Therapy

Incongruence/Congruence
Pathology is due to incongruence between the self and experience.
Phenomenal Self
Focus=Clarifying feelings without judging or elaborating upon them.
Empathy, Warmth, Genuineness  Perls  Gestalt Therapy

People structure experiences as whole, integrated organisms, not in cognitive or affective fragments. (figure and ground)
Focus=Becoming aware of whole personality by discovering those aspects of self that are blocked from awareness. INTEGRATION  Glasser  Reality Therapy

Responsibility
Focuses on clarifying pt values and helping pt to evaluate current bx and plans in relation to these values.
Key Element=Control Theory
(juvenile delinquents and prison inmates)  Berne  Transactional Analysis

Goal is for pt to become aware of the intent behind their communication and to eliminate deceit so that pt can interpret their own bx accuately.
Ego States, Transactions, Games, Strokes, Life Scripts  Thermal Biofeedback vs. EMG Biofeedback
 EMG is more effective for tension headaches as compared to thermal for migraines.
 Prochaska's Transtheoretical Model of Bx Change

Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
**Motivational Interviewing is an enhancement of this  5 Factor Theory of Personality

Costa and McCrae
Openness to experience
Conscientiousness
Extroversion
Agreeableness
Neuroticism  General Systems Theory
 Homeostasis
 Cybernetics

Circular nature of feedback loops.
Negative Feedback Loopdecrease deviation
Positive Feedback Loopincrease deviation  Psychodynamic Family Therapy

Facilitation of individual maturation in the context of the family system.
Marital Schism
Marital Skew  Object Relations Family Therapy

Framo
Focuses on transferences and projections between couples of family members.  Structural Family Therapy

Minuchin
Family is viewed as a single, interrelated system, which is assessed according to hierarchy of power, clarity and firmness of boundaries, and significant alliances and splits.
Rigid Triads: Triangulation, Detouring, Stable Coalition
Tx=Taking Sides, Blaming, Forming Coalitions  Communications Family Therapy  MRI

Satir, Watzlawick, Bateson, Jackson, Haley
Double Bind
Addresses communication problems using indirect (paradoxical intervention) and direct (teaching and pointing out) techniques.  Strategic Family Therapy

Haley
Views family's presenting problem and sx as a communicative act.
Tx=resolving presenting problem only (defined by bx objectives and techniques)
Focus=interrupting rigid feedback cycle and defining a clearer heirarchy (paradoxical interventions)  Milan Group  Systematic Family Therapy
 Circular questioning and prescription of rituals
 Family Systems Theory

Bowen
Genograms
Goal=personal differentiation from the familyoforigin, the ability to be one's true self in the face of familial or other pressures that threaten loss of love or social position.
Emotional Triangle=closeness of 2 members excludes a third.  Solution Focused Therapy

Steve de Shazer
Very brief
Miracle Question
Exception Question
Scaling Question  Narrative Therapy

Michael White
Sx do not serve functions, but rather they oppress people.
Goal=help pt "restory" by casting difficulties as a struggle for control with a sx.  Behavioral Family Therapy

Normal family functioning results when adaptive bx is rewarded, maladaptive bx is not reinforced, and the benefits of being a member of the family outweigh the costs.
**In troubled families, maladaptive bx is reinforced by family attention.
Tx=concrete, oberservable behavioral goals.  Cognitive Behavioral Family Therapy
 Relationship related cognitions are seen as the underlying cause of feelings and bx of family members.
 Ideal Group Composition

Heterogeneous in terms of conflict
Homogeneous in terms of ego strength
7 or 8 members
range of 5 to 10  Eysenck MetaAnalysis

2/3 of all neurotics improved over a 2 year period whether or not they received tx.
Also noted that treated people seemed to do worse than nontreated people.  Average Effect Size of Tx
 .85
 Improvement by 8th Session
 50% of patients are measurably improved
 Improvement by End of Six Months
 75% of patients were measurably improved.
 Seligman Effectiveness Study

90% of treated pts doing well
longterm tx yielded better outcomes  True Experimental Research

At least 1 IV is manipulated
Subjects randomly assigned  QuasiExperimental Research

At lease 1 IV is manipulated
Nonrandom assignment (preexisting groups)  Observational, Passive, or Nonexperimental Research

No intervention or manipulation
Sometimes called "correlational"  Between Groups Design
 Independent Data
 Within Subjects Design

Correlated Dat
matched
repeated measures
inherent relationship  Counterbalancing

Used to deal with carryover effects inherent in repeated measures.
Latin Square  Mixed Design
 Both independent and correlated groups.
 Single Subject Design

Idiographic
AB, ABAB, Multiple Baseline, Simultaneous Tx, and Changing Criterion
**Problem=Autocorrelation  Group Subject Design
 Nomothetic
 AB Design

A baseline condition is followed by a tx condition.
**Threat=History  ABAB Design

Baseline and tx conditions are alternationed: tx, baseline, tx, baseline
**Protects against treat of history
**Problems=failure of IV to return to baseline, ethics regarding removal of effective tx  Multiple Baseline Design

Tx is applied SEQUENTIALLY or CONSECUTIVELY across subjects, situations, or bx.
Resolves problems associated with AB and ABAB designs, but is more time consuming and $$.  Changing Criterion Design

Attempt to change bx in increments to match a changing criterion.
10 cups one day, then 8 the next, and then 6 the third day.  Time Sampling

Behavioral Measurement
Useful for bx that is not discrete, thus has no beginning or end.
Momentary
Whole Interval  Momentary Time Sampling
 Observer records whether target bx is present or absent at the moment the time interval ends.
 WholeInterval Sampling
 Scoring target bx positively only if it is exhibited for the full duration of the time interval.
 Event Recording

Tallying the number of times the target bx occurred.
Useful for a target bx that is discrete and occurs infrequently.  Simple Random Sampling
 Every member of the population has an equal chance of being randomly selected.
 Stratified Random Sampling

Population divided into strata and then a random sample of equal size of each strata is selected.
(ex. divide into various SES levels and then select equal numbers from each SES)  Proportional Sampling
 Subjects randomaly selected in proportion to their representation in the general population.
 Systematic Sampling
 Selecting every kth element after a random start. (ex. every 10th person is selected)
 Cluster Sampling
 Identifying naturally occurring groups of subjects and randomly selecting certain clusters. (schools in school district  randomly select 10 schools)
 Threats to Internal Validity

Factors other than the IV that may have caused the change in the DV.
History (Control Group)
Maturation (Control Group)
Testing Practice (Solomon Four Group Design)
Instrumentation (Control Group)
Statistical Regression (Control Group)
Selection Bias (Random Assignment)
Attrition
Diffusion (tighter control of experiment)  Solomon Four Group Design

Helps control for effects of testing practice.
Divide subjects into 4 groups.
One=pre and post test, intervention in between
Two=pre and post test, but no intervention
Three=intervention and post
Four=pre and intervention  Threats to Construct Validity

Refers to factors other than the desired specifics of intervention that result in differences.
Attention and Contact w/ Subjects
Experimenter Expectancies (Rosenthal Effect) (Blind Experimenter)
Demand Characteristics (Blind Subjects)
John Henry Effects (groups should not know about each other)  Threats to External Validity

Whether results can be generalized from sample studied to the population.
Sample Characteristics
Stimulus Characteristics
Contextual Characteristics (Reactivity  Hawthorne Effect)  Reactivity

When subjects behave in a particular way just because they are participating in research and being observed (Hawthorne Effect).
Threat to External Validity  Threats to Statistical Conclusion Validity

Low Power
Unreliability of Measures
Variability in Procedures
Subject Heterogeneity  Low Power

Diminished ability to find significant results.
Small Sample Size
Inadequate Interventions  The Greater the Internal Validity
 The Lower the External Validity
 Best Measure of Central Tendency

Mean
**Median when data is skewed or extreme scores are present  Variance
 standard deviation squared
 Positive Skew

Higher proportion of scores in lower range of values (peak near y axis)
Mode, Median, Mean  Negative Skew

Higher proportion of scores in the higher range of values.
Peak far from the y axis.
Mean, Median, Mode  Leptokurtotic
 Very sharp peak
 Platykurtotic
 flattened distribution
 Percentage Correct

Criterionreferenced Score
Domainreferenced Score  Percentile Rank

How person scored relative to group.
Normreferenced Score  Standard Scores

Based on SD of sample.
Zscores
tscores
IQ scores
SAT scores
EPPP scores
**Zscores are most basic and correspond directly to SD (mean=0, SD=1) Always identical to raw score distribution.  Percentile Ranks

50
84
97.5
99.9
**If points are added to 2 people in distribution, there will be a greater change in rank for person at midrange as opposed to tail.  Zscore formula
 Z=Xmean/SD
 Raw Score Formula
 X=mean + or  Z(SD)
 Standard Error of the Mean

Average amount of deviation of a sample mean.
=SDpop/âˆšN
Varies directly with SDpop
Varies indirectly with N  Region of Unlikely Values

Rejection Region
At tail end of curve
Unlikely that a researcher will obtain means in this region simply because of chance.
Corresponds to alpha level (when .05, rejection region is 5% of curve).
**When obtained values fall in rejection region, null is rejected, and tx had an effect.  Type I Error

Null is incorrectly rejected, i.e., differences were found and they do not exist.
**Size of alpha directly corresponds to the likelihood of making this error.  Type II Error

The null is incorrectly accepted, i.e., no differences are found when differences actually do exist.
**Probability of making this error corresponds to beta (inverse relationship w/ alpha).  Power

When null is rejected and it turns out to be correct.
Ability to correctly reject the null.
Increased when sample size is large, random error is small, magnitude of intervention is large, statistical test is parametric, and test is onetailed.
**Power=1beta. Beta has the most significant and measurable effect on power. As alpha increases, so does power.  Assumptions for Parametric Tests

Interval or ration data
Homoscedasticity (similar variability)
Normally distributed data  Violations of Homoscedasticity
 Okay as long as an equal number of subjects is used in each cell.
 Chi Square

Test of Difference
Nominal
One IV
2 or more groups
Independent  Multiple Sample Chi Square

Test of Difference
Nominal
>one IV
2 or more groups (per IV)
Independent groups  McNemar

Test of Difference
Nominal
one or more IV
2 or more groups (per IV)
Correlational  Kolmogorov

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
1 group
independent
ordinal data  t test single sample

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
1 group
independent
I/R data  t test independent samples

Test of Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
independent
I/R data  Mann Whitney, Median Test, or KolmogorovSmirnov

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
independent
Ordinal data  Wilcoxon or Sign Test

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
correlational
Ordinal data  t test matched samples

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
2 groups
correlational
I/R data  1 Way ANOVA

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
independent
I/R data  Kruskall Wallis

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
independent
Ordinal data  1 Way Repeated Measures ANOVA

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
correlational
I/R data  Friedman

Difference
1 IV and 1 DV
>2 groups
correlational
Ordinal data  2 Way ANOVA or Factorial ANOVA

Difference
2 IV's
2 groups or more per IV
both IV's  groups independent
I/R data  Mixed ANOVA or Split Plot ANOVA

Difference
2 IV's
2 groups or more per IV
1 IV  groups independent
1 IV  groups correlational
I/R data  Repeated Measures Factorial ANOVA

Difference
2 IVs
2 groups or more per IV
both IVsgroups correlational
I/R data  Randomized Block ANOVA

Difference
2 IVs
2 or more groups per IV
both IVsgroups independent
one blocked
I/R data
***study the effect of a confounding variable  ANCOVA

Difference
2 IVs
2 groups or more per IV
with Covariate
independent and/or correlational groups
I/R data
***paritaling out or getting rid of confounding variable  MANOVA

Difference
>1 DV
2 groups or more per IV
independent and/or correlational groups
I/R data  Single Sample ChiSquare Degrees of Freedom
 df=#groups  1
 Multiple Sample ChiSquare Degrees of Freedom
 df=(#rows1)x(#columns1)
 t test single sample degrees of freedom
 df=N1
 t test for matched or correlated samples degrees of freedom
 df=# pairs1
 degrees of freedom for t test independent samples
 df=N2
 degrees of freedom for one way ANOVA

df total=N1
df between groups=#groups1
df within groups=df totaldf between groups  Expected Frequencies in a ChiSquare

Data in Each Cell:
Sum of the row x Sum of the Column/N
N and Groups are given:
Freq=N/total # of cells  F Ratio for One Way ANOVA

=MSbg/MSwg
**When F=1, no significance.
***When F>2, significance.  Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type I
 Scheffe and Tukey
 Post Hoc that provides most protection from Type II Error (least protection from Type I)
 Fisher's LSD
 Advantage of 2 Way ANOVA

Not only permits analysis of main effects (significance) for each IV, but also permits analysis of interaction effects.
**When an interaction is significant, main effects must be interpreted with caution. (Interaction must be interpreted first)  Trend Analysis

Extension of the ANOVA.
Used to analyze nonlinear data such as, doage of drugs, hours of food deprivation, etc.  Coefficient of Determination

=correlation coefficient squared
Represents the amount of variability in Y that is shared with, explained by, or accounted for by X.  Simple Linear Regression Equation

Derived based on the line of best fit through the scatter plot and is calculated using the least squares criterion.
Regression Equation:
Y=a+bX  Eta
 Used to calculate the correlation between X and Y when it is thought that X and Y have a curvilinear relationship.
 Pearson r

Correlation
X and Y=I/R data  Spearman's Rho or Kendall's Tau

Correlation
X and Y=ordinal data  PointBiserial

Correlation
X=I/R data
Y=true dichotomy  Biserial

Correlation
X=I/R data
Y=artificial dichotomy  Phi

Correlation
X and Y=true dichotomies  Tetrachoric

Correlation
X and Y=artificial dichotomies  Partial Correlation
 Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the effect of a third variable removed.
 Part (Semipartial)Correlation
 Examines the relationship between the predictor and the criterion with the influence of a third variable removed from only one of the original variable.s
 Moderator Variable
 Variable that influences the strength of the relationship between the predictor and the criterion.
 Mediator Variable
 Explaines why there is a relationship between the predictor and the criterion.
 Multiple R

Correlation
2 or more IVs (at least 1 I/R data)
1 DV (I/R data)