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Ch 5, 7, 8 & 11 - Behavior


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4 Requirements for Explaining Behavior
Must be inclusive
Must be verifiable
Should have predictive utility
Should be parsimonious
Biophysical Explanations
Genetic and hereditary effects
Biochemical explanations
Brain Damage
Usefulness of Bisphysical Theory
Predictive Utility
Developmental Explanations
Psychoanalytic Theory
Stage Theory of Cognitive Development
Stage Theory of Intelligence
Freud's Components of Personality
Id - seeks gratification w/out reference to external controls

Ego - processes of memory, judgment, reasoning, language, thought

Superego - function as result of parental training - includes conscience, morals, ethics, and aspirations
Forces for Adapting to the Environment
Assimilation - tendency to adapt the environ. to enhance personal functioning

Accommodation - tendency to change beh to adapt to the environment

Equilibrium - process of maintaining a balance between assimilation and accommodation
Usefulness of Developmental Theories
Predictive Utility
Cognitive Explanation
Gestalt Theory
Principles of Organization
People have difficulty proofreading because they see words spelled correctly even when they are not
Behavioral Explanation for Human Behavior
Positive Reinforcement
Negative Reinforcement
Stimulus Control
Positive Reinforcement
Providing a consequence following a behavior which INCREASES the behavior's rate of occurrence
Negative Reinforcement
Removing or reducing the intensity of an environmental condition (usually something unpleasant) which INCREASES a behavior's rate of occurrence
Behavior followed by a consequence that DECREASES the behavior's future rate of occurrence
3 Components of Behavioral Model
Pinpointing Behavior
Pinpoint current behavior problem
State targeted change in behavior
What will it look like?
Priority Goals
Maladaptive Behavior - harmful, socially inappropriate

Functional need - Immediate need, criterion of next environment

Assessment - developmental, Unit
Considerations when developing educational goals
- Evaluation data
- Student's past & projected rate of development compared with long-range plans for future
- Student's presenting physical & communicative capabilities
-Inappropriate behaviors must be brought under control
-Skills the students lacks for appropriate functioning
-amt of instructional time available
- prerequisites necessary for acquiring new skills
- functional utility of the skills
-availability of specialized materials, equipment or resource personnel
Six Levels of Learning
Knowledge objective
Given a list of Shakespearean plays, Deb will underline the names of the tragedies with no more than one error within 30 minutes
Comprehension objective
Given a worksheet of 40 basic math examples requiring addition and subtraction, Dan will complete the sheet with 90% accuracy
Application objective
Given the names of the five organisms and the Lenin sysem, Jenny will place each in its proper category and write a list of rationales for placement, each with a minimum of two reasons for placement
Synthesis Objective
Given the study of the Shakespearaean tragedy Macbeth, Deb will rewrite the end of the plan in iambic pentameter, assuming the murder of the king was unsuccessful.
Evaluation objective
Given a set of unknown values and a given arithmetic computational function, Dan will explain the probability of differing answers that may be correct
Levels of Learning - Simplified
Fluency Objective
When presented with a calculator and a list of several double digit number combinations, Emily will use the calculator to add each number combination independently with 100% accuracy for one week
Maintenance Objective
When presented with a calculator and a list of several double digit combinations, Emily will use the calculator to add each number combination independently with 100% accuracy for four consecutive weeks.
Generalization Objective
When presented with a calculator and several double digit prices at the grocery store, Emily will use the calculator to add each single digit price3 independently with 100% accuracy for two weeks.
5 elements of the IEP
-Statement of the child's present levels of educational performance
-Statement of annual goals, including short term instructional objectives
-Statement of the specific special education and related services to be provided to the child and the extent to which the child will be able to participate in the regular education environment
-projected dates for initiation of services and expected duration
-appropriate objective criteria and evaluation procedures and schedules for determining, on at least an annual basis, whether the short-term instructional objectives are being achieved
Independent Variable
Treatment or intervention that the experimenter manipulates in order to change a behavior
Dependent Variable
The behavior to be changed through intervention
Why measure behaviors?
statistical significance
Clinical significance
Social validity
Educational validity
Quality of life
Reasons for collecting data
-To determine the effects of a particular instructional strategy or intervention
-Allows for ongoing and summative evaluation of instruction or intervention
-Collecting and reporting effect-based data is the ultimate tool of accountability
How frequently to collect data
High priority objectives
Lower priority objectives
Data that are progressing as planned
Data that are not progressing
Skills being taught to replace problem behavior
Behavior Dimension Measures
Number of times a student engages in a behavior
Frequency of a behavior expressed in a ration with time
How long a student engages in a behavior
The length of time between instructions to perform a behavior and the occurrence of the behavior
The "shape" of the behavior
The intensity of the behavior
Where a behavior occurs
Systems for Collecting Data: Categories
-Analyzing written records: Anecdotal reports
-observing tantible products: permanent product recording
-observing a sample of bheavior: event recording, interval recording, time sampling, duration recording, latency recording
Guidelines for Anecdotal Reports
-Describe setting as you initially see it - describe the individuals, their relationships and identify occurring activity
-Record everything the student says and does and with whom
-describe everything said and done to the student and by whom
-clearly differentiate between fact and your interpretation of what is being observed
-provide some temporal indicators so as to be able to judge duration
Anecdotal Report Questions
-What are the behaviors that can be described as inappropriate?
-Is this behavior occurring frequently, or has a unique occurrence been identified?
-Can reinforcement or punishment of the behavior be identified
-Is there a pattern to these consequences
More Anecdotal Report Questions
-Can antecendents to the behavior be identified?
-Is there an identifiable pattern for certain events or stimuli that precede behavior's occurrence
-Are there recurrent chains of certain antecedents, behaviors, and consequences
-Given the identified inappropriate behaviors and the patterns of antecedents and consequences, what behavior really needs to be modified, and who is engaging in the behavior?
Questions for a data collector:
Is the target behavior numerical or temporal
-If numerical - is behavior discrete or continuous; is behavior expected to occur at a high frequency, moderate or low?; will teacher be able to collect data during intervention/instruction,or will the teacher need a third party to collect data

If temporal, does the teacher want to measure the time before initiation of the response or time elapased during performance of the response
Observation Recording Systems
-Event Recording
-Interval Recording
-Time sampling
-Duration Recording
-Latency Recording
Event recording
-Ease of data collection
-no need to interrupt a lesson to collect data
-can be used for many academic behaviors
Event Recording - not appropriate for
Behavior occurring at such a high frequency that the number recorded may not reflect an accurate count

Cases in which one behavior or response can occur for extended time periods
Interval Recording
-Define specific time period during which target behavior will be observed
-Divide time period into equal intervals
-Record whether the behavior occurs at any time during the interval
Time Sampling
Select time period
Divide the period into equal intervals
Record if the behavior was observed at the end of the interval
Duration Recording
Used when the length of time the behavior occurs is the primary concern rather than how often the behavior occurs
Latency Recording
Involves measuring the length of time from the delivery of an antecedent stimulus that should elicit the target behavior to the actual beginning of the target behavior
Inter-observer Agreement
Degree to which 2 independent observers agree on what is being recorded
-recordings must be done independently
-recordings must be conducted exactly the same way when there is typically only one observer
Permanent Record of Responding
Two observers independently score each response or a sample of the responses, and the number of agreements on each response is multiplied by 100 and then divided by the sum of agreements and disagreements to provide the percentage of observer agreement
agreements divided by
disagreements + agreements x 100 = 100% agreement
Agreement formula
Interobserver agreement = # of agreements X 100

# of agreements + disagreements
Sources of bias that affect interobserver agreement
observer drift
Graphs serve 3 purposes
1) provide means for organizing data during the data collection process
2) an ongoing picture makes possible formative evaluation, the ongoing analysis of the effectiveness of the intervention
3) serve as a vehicle for communication among t4eacher, student, parents, and related service personnel
computing rate
Divide the number of correct responses by the time taken for responding

Rage (.5) = number correct (5)/
Time 0 minutes
Dependent variable: the behavior targeted for change

Independent variable: the intervention being used to change behavior
What is dependent and independent variable?
-To increase compliance in vocational settings by implementing a token reinforcement system
-Use picture prompts with students with severe disabilities to increase instruction-following skills
-students will increase their organizational skills by outlining their daily activities on a schedule checklist for six weeks
-use of graduated guidance will enable the student to eventually feed himself
-increase reading skills by two grade levels following instruction using "I'm a better reader" program in combination with time delay
Functional Relationship
-a relationshp between the dependent and independent variable
-said to exist if the dependent variable systematically changes in the desired direction as a result of the intervention and manipulation of the independent variable
-when a functional relationship is established between and independent variable and a dependent variable for one individual, repeated studies of the same intervention are conducted using different individuals and different dependent variables
Single subject design allows us to:
predict: the anticipated outcome of a presently unknown or future measurement


Single subject designs allow us to:
predict- anticipate outcome
verify - demonstrate that prior level of baseline responding would have remained unchanged had the ind variable not been introduced
replicate-repeating the previously observed change with further manipulations of the ind variable
Common components of single subject designs
-measure of baseline performance
-measure of performance under an intervention condition
-at least one replication of results within a design
Baseline mesures
descriptive function - describes student's existing level of performance

predictive function - allows us to predict future performance if an intervention is NOT provided
Baseline stability assessed by:
1. variability of data points
2. trends in the data points
Trends - Ascending (Increasing Trend)
teachers should initiate intervention on an ascending baseline only if the objective is to DECREASE the behavior
Descending baseline (Decreasing Trend)
Includes at least three data points that show a distinctive decreasing trend - intervention should be initiated only if the objective is to increase the behavior
Single subject design
AB design
Reversal Design (withdrawal design)
Changing criterion design
Multiple baseline design
Alternating treatments design
Changing conditions design
AB Design
"Teaching" design
Pre-experimental design
Target behavior is clearly specified and repeated measurement is taken throughout the A and B phases
Advantages/Disadvantages of AB Design
-Simple to use
-cannot be used to make a confident assumption of a functional relationship
-does not provide for replication
Reversal Design (ABAB withdrawal design)
A = Baseline 1: initial baseline
B = intevention 1: initial intervention
A = Baseline 2: return to baseline
B = intervention 2:reintroduction of intervention
Use reversal design when:
- clear functional relationship between ind and dep variable needs to be demonstrated
- when then nature of the target behavior is such that it can be reversed when the treatment is withdrawn
-when the nature of the treatment is such that its effects are not present on the target behavior after it is withdrawn
-when withdrawal of treatment does not compromise ethics
Do not Use reversal design when:
-target behavior is not reversible
-treatment effects will continue after the treatment is withdrawn
-it is not educationally or clinically desirable for the beh to return to baseline levels
-when withdrawal of treatment does not compromise ethics
BAB Design (reversal variation)
-Used when baseline data may be inappropriate
-used to determine the effectivenss of an interention on the target behavior
-begins with the intervention phase
Example BAB Design (reversal)
BEhavior: student biting
B = differential reinforcement ever 5 min of no biting
A = withdraw reinforcement for a few sessions
B = reinstate reinforcement schedule
Advantages of BAB
-desirable because it ends with an intervention unlike ABA
-ABAB design is most desirable of reversal designs because it allows us to see the effects of the ind variable on the natural rate of occurrence of the target behavior
Changing Criterion Design
-Involves the gradual, systematic increase or decrease of a single target behavior
-accomplished by carefully changing, in a setpwise fashion, the criterion levels necessary to meet contingencies to increase or decrease behavior
Changing Criterion Design Steps
-define the target behavior
-collect basleine data
-determine criterion level for the first subphase
-begin the intervention
-introduce the next subphase level after the initial criterion level is met
-continue through each subphase in a stepwise fashion until the terminal goal is reched
Changing Criterion Design - length of each phase
-each phase serves as a baseline for the subsequent phase
-each phase should continue until stable responding has occurred
-the presentation of a new criterion level should result in an almost immediate change in the target behavior to that new level
changing criterion design - number of criterion changes
-refers to the number of phases that should be included in the study
-determination will depend on the length of the phases and the magnitude of criterion changes
changing criterion design - prediction, verification, and replication
-prediction of the levels of future behaviors is made when stable responding is attained within each phase
-verification is demonstrated when the direction of the criterion level is reversed and the behavior returns to a previously set criterion level
-replication occursevery time the behavior changes in the predicted direction based on the predetermined criterion levels
Changing criterion design - Advantages
-helpful when working on behaviors that are being shaped
-helpful when the terminal goal that is se3t takes a long time to reach
-the treatment does not have to be withdrawn to show its requisite functional relationshp with the target behavior
Changing criterion design appropriate for use when:
- target behavior can change gradually in a step-wise fashion
-behavior is already in the subject's repertoire and needs to be increased or decreased
-the effects of contingent reinforcement or punishment procedures need to be evaluated
-withdrawl of treatment is not appropriate
Changing Criterion Design - Disadvantages:
-not appropriate when beh must occur immediately
-may not be appropriate to hold back an individual and his behavioral change
changing criterion design not appropriate
-when target beh cannot be changed in a gradual, stepwise fashion
-when target beh is not in the subject's repertoire
-when treatments other than the presentation of contingencies are being evaluated
-when time and effort cannot be given to determine the important parameters of the design
multiple baseline design (MB)
-permits simultaneous analysis of more than one dependent variable
- effects of the ind variable may be tested on:
*2 or + beh associated w/one student in a single setting
*2 or + students exhibiting the same beh in a single setting
*2 or + settings in which one student is exhibiting the same behavior
Mechanics of MB design
-baseline is collected across 3 dep variables
-intervention is applied to the first DV while baseline continues for the other 2
-when criterion is obtained for the first DV, intervention begins with the second DV while baseline is continued for the third, etc.
Multiple baseline should be used when:
-when withdrawal designs are not feasible due to ethical concerns
-when there is more than one target behavior, setting, or individual in need of treatment
-when the effects of the ind variable cannot be withdrawn or reversed
Multiple baseline should not be used when:
-selected target beh are not functionally similar nor independent of one another
-if there is only one individual/setting/behavior selected for treatment
-when more than one intervention phase is desirable to demonstrate a functional relationship
-when constraints on resources make implementation impossible
Changing Conditions Design
-used to investigate the effect of two or more treatments on the beh of a student
-cannot be used to determine the effects of a functional relationship between the dep variable and any of the tested ind variables
Alternating Treatment Design (ATD) used when:
-you want to determine relative effectiveness of more than 1 treatment on a given behavior
-baseline data are either unabilable or might be unstable
-treatments are sufficiently different from each other
-subjects can discriminate the treatment conditions
-effects of sequencing the interventions might obscure the results
ATD should not be used:
-when treatments might interact, thus obscuring the results
-when subjects cannot discriminate the treatment conditions
-when treatments typically produce slow beh changes
-when treatments need to be administered over a continuous period of time to be effective
-when it becomes difficult to counterbalance the various aspects of the study
Visual inspection requirements:
-evaluation of changes in means
-evaluation of the level of performance
-evaluation of a trend in performance
-computation of the percentage of overlap of data
-rapidity of the behavior change
positive reinforcer
the consequential stimulus event itself

it: increases or maintains the future rate and/or probability of occurrence of a behavior
is administered contingently upon the production of a desired or requested beh
is administered immediately following the production of the desired or requested beh
9 step sequence for selecting reinforcers:
-considera ge, interests, and appetites of the person whose beh you wish to strengthen
-consider the beh you wish to strengthen thru reinforcement
-list potential reinforcers
-The Premack Principle
-Consider asking the person
-consider novel reinforcers
-consider reinforcers that are natural
-select the reinforcers you will use
-make a record of the beh
6 ways to delay satiation
-assign a particular reinforcer to each instructional task
-shorten the instructional session in which the edible reinforcer is being used
-switch to an alternative reinforcer
-decrease the size of pieces
-have an array of reinforcers
-reinforce every third correct response
generalized reinforcer
when a reinforcer is associated with a variety of beh or with access to a variety of other primary or secondary reinforcers
social reinforcer
a secondary reinforcer used almost unconsciously and unsystematically by teachers and includes demonstrations of approval or attention
token economy reinforcement program
a symbolic reinforcement system where students receive tokens for specific appropriate behaviors, which may be exchanged for objects or activities that have been identified as reinforcing

as students learn to associate the tokens with the purchase of reinforcers, the tokens themselves become reinforcing
what students need to know about a token system
-what behaviors are required
-what are the backup reinforcers
-the cost of each backup reinforcer
-when tokens can be exchanged for the backup reinforcers
schedules of reinforcement
-continuous (CRF) 1:1
ration schedule
interval schedule
intermittent schedule of reinforcement
ratio schedule - reinforcer delivered per number
fixed - only after a specific number of tasks are completed
variable - delivered following an average number of occurrences

interval schedule - reinforcer delivered per time
fixed - only after a specific number of minutes have passed
variable - delivered following an average number of minutes
negative reinforcement cycle
-student is confronted with an aversive stimulus
-student engages in inappropriate behavior
-teacher removes aversite stimulus
-student is negatively reinforced for the inappropriate behavior
-next time the student is confronted by the aversive stimulus, the cycle is repeated
Reasons for using self-management procedures:
- use of external change agtents sacrifices consistency since teachers or other may miss certain instances of behavior
-problems associated with communication between agents in different settings can also undermine the success of a program
-the change agents themselves can become an environmental cue for the performance or lack of performance of a behavior
-an individual's contribution to the development of a personal behavior change program may increase performance
-external agents are not always available in the environment where the target behavior is occurring or should occur
self management techniques
-ask students to set goals
-ask students to evaluate their performance
-explain to student what behavior resulted in reinforcement
-ask student to relate part of the contingency for reinforcement
-ask the student ot state the entire contingency for reinforcement
-involve students in choosing reinforcers and in determining the cost in terms of behavior
types of self-management procedures
components of self-recording
-select a target behavior
-operatonally define the behavior
-select an apporpriate system of data collection
-instruct the student in the use of the data collection system
-monitor at least one practice of data recording session
-allow students to use self-recording independently and monitor the results
students may be asked to compare their responses on a worksheet to an answer key
-students set their own contingencies
-teacher controls what reinforcers are available
students determine the "cost" of not meeting their goal
the process of providing one's own verbal prompts .... self-talk
self-instruction procedures
-adult models the beh while talking out loud
-student performs the same task with adult directing
-student performs the task and instructs himself aloud
-student whispers instructions to himself
-student uses private speech to guide behavior
factors which influence self-instruction
-actual implementation of the procedure during task performance
-the ability of students to perform the response in question
-reinforcement for adhering to self-instructions
-making the focus of instructions specific
a punisher is the aversive stimuli that when presented, facilitates a decrease in behavior
Types of punishment
Type I - application of an aversive event following a misbehavior (presentation of a punisher)

Type II - withdrawal of a positive reinforcer following a misbehavior
Example of type 1 punishment
an uninvited lecture from a parent
a spanking
a check mark next to name on the board
a demerit
a speeding ticket
Example of Type II Punishment
Time Out
Turn off favorite TV program
Removal of teenager's phone
paying a fine
lose tokens
Usefulness of aversive stimuli
Rapidly stops the occurrence of a behavior and has some long term effects

facilitates learning by providing a clear discrimination between acceptable and unacceptable beh

Visually illustrates to other students the results of engaging in that behavior and thus, lessens the probability that others will engage in that behavior
Guidelines for aversive stimuli
documentation of failure of alternative procedures
informed written consent
decision to implement is made by a designated body of qualified professionals
prearranged timetable for review of the effectiveness of the procedure and discontinuance of the procedure as soon as possible
periodic observations to ensure consistent and reliable administration of procedure
documentation of the effectiveness as well as evidence ofincreased accessibility to instruction
administration of the procedure by only a designated staff member
positive reinforcement of incompatible behavior
unconditioned aversive stimuli
stimuli which result in physical pain or discomfort to the student
purpose to teach students to take responsibility for their inappropriate acts and teach them appropriate beh
correct beh is taught through an exaggeration of experience
examples of overcorrection
throwing a piece of paper - would require the individual to pick up all the paper on the floor of the cafeteria at the end of lunch or all the paper in the classroom
restitutional overcorrection
used when the setting has been disturbed by a student's misbehavior -- student must correct the setting he/she has disturbed
positive practice overcorrection
when the form of a beh is inappropriate. Student practices an exaggerated correct form of an appropriate behavior
guidelines for overcorrection
tell student he behaved inappropriately
stop student's ongoing activity
provide systematic verbal instructions fo the overcorrection activity
force the practice of the correctional beh
return the student to the ongoing activity
Time Out (defined)
a punishment procedure in which reinforcement is withdrawn for a prespecified period of time following the performance of a misbehavior
Time Out
time away from reinforcement
Types of time out
exclusionary - removing the student from the reinforcing environment for a specified period

nonexclusionary - allowing the student to remain in the environment but not allowing the student to engage in reinforcing activities for a specified time period
always use exclusionary
time out
advantages of exclusionary time out
student is removed
no reinforcement is available in time out
disadvantages of exclusionary time out
-difficult to implement immediately
-special room needed
-student may receive attention for misbehavior during process of moving to time out room
-class routine is interrupted
-less effective for those who want to be alone
-potential for timeout room to be used for staff convenience
ways to use nonexclusionary time out
withdraw a specific reinforcer
require student to sit in corner
use a timeout ribbon procedure
timeout ribbon procedure
each student wears a ribbon of different color
whenever a student is reinforced, the instructor describes the inappropriate beh and mentions the fact that the student is wearing his ribbon
if student misbehaves, ribbon is removed for a specified time
advantages of nonexclusionary time out
easily implemented
student sees what he/she is missing
no special room is required
less interruption of class routine
can be used in a variety of locations
can be used with a variety of misbehaviors
student won't miss ongoing educational activities
disadvantages of nonexclusionary timeout
student may become agitated and/or combative when reinforcer is removed
student may disturb classmates
student may not remain in timeout area
If exclusionary time out is used:
must be planned with procedures in place: designated area, time, only for specific behavior
must be implemented by a trained professional
must have permission
must collect documentation

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