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CogPsych Chap 9-12


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the use of an organize means of combining words in order to communicate
the psychology of our language as it interacts with the human mind
Verbal comprehension
the receptive ability to comprehend written and spoken linguistic input, such as words, sentences, and paragraphs
Verbal fluency
the expressive ability to produce linguistic output
the smallest unit of speech sound that can be used to distinguish one utterance in a given language from another
the smallest unit that denotes meaning within a particular language
content morphemes
the words that convey the bulk of the meaning of a language
function morphemes
add detail an nuance to the maning of the content morphemes or help the content of morphemes fit the grammatical context
exchange of thoughts and feelings
refers to the way in which users of a particular language put words together to form sentences
noun phrase
contains at least one noun and includes all the relevant descriptors of the noun
verb phrase
contains at least one verb and whatever the verb acts on
the study of meaning in a language
encompasses language use at the level beyond the sentence, such as in conversation, paragraphs, stories, chapters, and entire works of literature
occurs when phonemes or other units are produced in a way that overlaps them in time
categorical perception
discontinuous categories of speech sounds
street dictionary definition of a word
a word's emotional overtones, presuppositions, and other nonexplicit meanings
the study of language in terms of noticing regular patters
phrase-structure grammars
analyze the structure of phrases as they are used
transformational grammar
involves the study of transformational rules that guide the ways in which underlying propositions can be rearranged to form various phrase structures
deep structure
refers to an underlying syntactical structure that links various phrase structures through the application of various transformation rules
surface structure
refers to any of the verious phrase structures that may result from such transformations
Thematic roles
ways in which items can be used in the context of communication
the infant's preferential production largely f those distinct phonems - oth vowels and consonants - that are characteristic of the infant's own language
Telegraphic speech
can be used to describe two or three word utterances and even slightly longer ones, if they have omissions of some function morphemes
language-acquisition device
a biologically innate mechanism that facilitates language acquisition
hypothesis testing view
children acquire language by mentally forming tentative hypotheses regarding language, based on their inherited facility for language acquisition and then testing these hypotheses in the environment
child-directed speech
simpler sentence constructions when speaking with infants and young children
occurs when individuals apply the general rules of language to the exceptional cases that vary from the norm
lexial processes
used to identify letters and words
comprehension processes
used to make sens of the text as a whole
lexical access
the identification of a word that allows us to gain access to the meaning of the word from memory
word-superiority effect
letters are read more easily when they are embedded i nwords than when they are presented either in isolation or with letters that do not form words
linguistic relativity
the assertion that the speakers of different languages have differing cognitive systems and that these different cognitive systems influence the ways in which people speaking the various languages think about the world
linguistic universals
characteristic pattersn across all languages of various cultures - and relativity
people who can speak two languages
people who can speak only one language
single-system hypothesis
suggests that two languages are represented in just one system or brain region
dual-system hypothesis
suggests that two languages are represented somehow in separate systems of the mind
a regional variety of language distinguished by features such as vocabulary, syntax, and pronunciation
slips of the tongue
inadvertent linguistic errors in what we say
juxtapose two nouns in a way that positively asserts their similarities, while not disconfirming their dissimilarities
speech acts
address the question of what you can accomplish with speech
cooperative principle
by which we seek to communicate in ways that make it easy for our listener to understand what we mean
problem solving cycle
includes problem identification, problem definition, strategy formulation, organization of information, allocation of resources, monitoring, and evaluation
breaking down the whole of a complex problem into manageable elements
putting together various elements to arrange them into something useful
divergent thinking
generating a diverse assortment of possible alternative solutions to a problem
convergent thinking
narrowing down the multiple possibilities to converge on a single best answer
well-structured problems
clear paths to solutions
illstructured problems
lack clear paths to solutions
problem space
universe of all possible actions that can be applied to solving a problem, given any constraints that apply to the solution of the problem
sequences of operations that may be repeated over and over again and that, in theory, guarantee the solution to a problem
informal, intuitive, speculative strategies that sometimes lead to an effective solution and sometimes do not
formal structure is the same, and only content differs
a distinctive and sometimes seemingly sudden understanding of a problem or of a strategy that aids in solving the problem
prodtuctive thinking
involves insights that go beyond the bounds of existing associations
selective-encoding insights
involve distinguishing relevant from irrelevant information
selective-comparison insights
involve novel perceptions of how new information relates to old information
selective-combination insights
involve taking selectively encoded and compared snippets of relevant information and combining that information in a novel, productive way
functional fixedness
the inability to realize that something known to have a particular use may also be used for performing other functions
beliefs that members of a social group tend more or less uniformly to have particular types of characteristic
any carryover of knowledge or skills from one problem situation to another
negative transfer
occurs when solving an earlier problem makes it harder to solve a later one
positive transfer
occurs when the solution of an earlier problem makes it easier to solve a new problem
people see analogies where they do not exist becaouse of similarity of content
putting the problem aside for a while without consciously thinking about it
erroneous reasoning
judgment and decision making
used to select from among choices or to evaluate opportunities
subjective utility
where is a calculation based on teh individual's judged weightins of utility, rather than an objective criteria
subjective probability
a calculationbased on the individual's estimates of liklihood, rather than on objective statistical computations
bounded rationality
we are rational but within limits
we consider options one by one, and then we select an option as soon as we find one that is satisfactory or just good enough to meet our minimum level of acceptability
elimination by aspects
we eliminate alternatives by focusing on aspects of each alternative, one at a time
we judge the porbablility of an uncertain event according to how obviously it is similar to or representative of the population from which it is derived and the degree to which it relfects the salient feature of the process by which it is generated
base rate
refers to the prevalence of an event or charactersitc within is population of events or characteristics
availability heuristic
we make judgements on the basis of how easily we can call to mind what we perceive as relevant instances of a phenomenon
illusory correlation
which we tend to see particular events or particular attributes and categories as going together because we are predisposed to do so
an individual's overvaluation of her or his own skills
hindsight bias
when we look at a situation retrospectively we believe we easily can see all the signs and events leading up to a particular outcome
the process of drawing conclusions from principles and from evidence

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