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Psych C-2


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Application of mathematics to describing and analyzing data
Descriptive Statistics
Numerical characterizations taht describe data
Central Tendency
Measure of the "central" scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster.
Average; a measure of central tendency.
Middle score in a data set; a measure of central tendency.
Most frequent score in a data set; a measure of central tendency.
Measure of how loosely or tightly bunched scores are.
Difference between the highest and lowest scores; a measure of dispersion.
Standard Deviation
Measure of dispersion that takes into account how far each data point is from the mean.
Inferential Statistics
Mathematical methods that allow us to determine whether we can generalize findings from our sample to the full population.
Informed Consent
Informing research participants of what is involved in a study before asking them to participate.
Response Sets
Tendencies of research participants to distort their responses to questionnaire items.
Consistency of measurement
Extent to which a measure assesses what it purports to measure.
Random Selection
Procedure that ensures every person in a population has an equal chance of being chosen to participate.
Hawthorne Effect
Phenomenon in which participants' knowledge that they're being studied can affect their behavior.
Demand Characteristics
Cues that participants pick up from a study that allow them to generate guesses regarding the researcher's hypotheses.
Nocebo Effect
Harm resulting from the mere expectation of harm
Experimenter Expectancy Effect
Phenomenon in which researchers' hypotheses lead them to unintentionally bias the outcome of a study.
When neither researchers nor participants are aware of who's in the experimental or control group.
Placebo Effect
improvement resulting from the mere expectation of improvement.
Unaware of whether one is in the experimental or control group.
Investigation of the consistency of patterns of results across large numbers of studies conducted in different laboratories.
File Drawer Problem
Tendency for negative findings to remain unpublished.
Any difference between the experimental and control groups other than the independent variable.
Research design characterized by random assignment of participants to conditions and manipulation of an independent variable.
Random Assignment
Randomly sorting participants into two groups
Experimental Group
In a experiment, the group of participants that receives the manipulation.
Control Group
In an experiment, the group of participants that doesn't receive the manipulation.
Independent Variable
Variable that an experimenter manipulates.
Dependent Variable
Variable that an experimenter measures to see whether the manipulation has an effect.
Illusory Correlation
Perception of a statistical association between two variables where none exists
Grouping of pints on a two-dimensional graph in which each dot represents a single person's data.
Correlational Design
Research design that examines the extent to which two variables are associated.
Internal Validity
Extent to which we can draw cause-and-effect inferences from a study.
Case Study
Research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended time period.
Existence Proofs
Demonstrations that a given psychological phenomenon can occur.
Naturalistic Observation
Watching behavior in real-world settings
External Validity
Extent to which we can generalize findings to real-world settings.
Tendency to overestimate our ability to make correct predictions.
Cognitive Biases
Systematic errors in thinking.
Hindsight Bias
Tendency to overestimate how well we could have successfully forecasted known outcomes.
Base Rate
How common a characteristic or behavior is in the general population.
Heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence based on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
Mental shortcuts that help us to streamline our thinking and make sense of our world.
Heuristic that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype
Prefrontal Lobotomy
Surgical procedure that severs fibers connecting the frontal lobes of the brain from the underlying thalamus

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