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Psychology Chapter 6-9 Exam


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What is classical conditioning?
a type of learning in which a neutral stimulus comes to bring about a response after it is paired with a stimulus that naturally brings about that response
What is a neutral stimulus?
a stimulus that before conditioning, does not naturally bring about the response of interest
What is an unconditioned stimulus(ucs)?
a stimulus that naturally brings about a particular response without having been learned
What is an unconditioned response(ucr)?
a response that is natural and needs no training (i.e. salivation at the smell of food)
What is a conditioned stimulus(cs)?
a once-neutral stimulus that has been paired with an unconditioned stimulus to bring about a response formerly caused by unconditioned stimulus
What is a conditioned response(cr)?
a response that after conditioning, follows a previously neutral stimulus(salivation at the ringing of a bell)
What does higher order conditioning do?
Explains why we learn certain things we learn
What is aquisition?
and unconditioned stimulus paired with a conditioned response will be consistent
What did Dr. Watson believe?
we did not come into the world with any fears or dislikes (blank slate) experiences teach us
Conditioned=learned, and unconditioned=not learned
An unconditioned stimulus leads to an unconditioned response
Unconditioned stimulus-unconditioned response pairings are unlearned and
During conditioning, a previously neutral neutral stimulus is transformed into the conditioned stimulus
A conditioned stimulus leads to a conditioned response, and a conditioned stimulus-conditioned response pairing is a consequence of learning
An unconditioned response and a conditioned response are similar (such as the salivation)
The unconditioned response occurs naturally, whereas the conditioned response is learned
What is extinction?
a previously conditioned response decreases in frequency and eventually disappears
What is spontaneous recovery?
The reemergence of an extinguished conditioned response after a period of rest and with no further conditioning
What is stimulus generalization?
tendency to respond to a stimulus that is similar to but different from a conditioned response; the more similar, the more likely this will occur
What is stimulus discrimination?
The ability to differentiate between stimuli
What is operant conditioning?
Learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its favorable or unfavorable consequences
What did Thorndike study and what law did he develop?
cats/latched box. Law Of Effect: responses that lead to satisfying consequences are more likely to be repeated
What is reinforcement?
the process by which stimulus increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated
What is a reinforcer?
any stimulus that increases the probalilty that a preceding behavior will occur again
What is shaping behavior?
increases the likelihood the behavior will reoccur
What is the opposite of a reinforcer?
What is the idea of operant conditioning?
What is a positive reinforcer?
a stimulus added to the environment that brings about and increase in a preceding response
What is a negative reinforcer?
an unpleasant stimulus whose removal leads to an increased probality that a preceding response will occur again
What is punishment?
stops behavior; stimulus that decreases the probability that a previous behavior will occur again
Reinforcement increases the frequency of the behavior preceding it; punishment decreases the frequency
The application of a psositive stimulus brings about an increase in the frequency of behavior and is referred to as a positive reinforcement
The application of a negative stimulus stops behavior and is called punishment
The removal of a negative stimulus that results in an increase in the frequency of behavior is termed negative reinforcement
The removal of a positive stimulus that decreases the behavior is called punishment
What are schedules of reinforcement?
different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior
What is continuous reinforcement schedule?
reinforcing of a behavior every time it occurs
What is partial(intermittent) reinforcement schedule?
reinforcing a behavior some but not all of the time
What is a FIXED-RATIO schedule?
reinforcement is given only after a specific number of responses are made(i.e.paid after certain number of shirts)
What is VARIABLE-RATIO schedule?
the time between reinforcements varies around some average-not fixed
What is FIXED-RATIO schedule?
provides reinforcement for a response only if a fixed time period has elapsed-overall rates of response low
What is shaping?
the process of teaching a complex behavior by rewarding closer and closer approximations of a desired behavior
What is behavior modification?
promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones
What is memory?
the process by which we encode, store and retrieve information
What is iconic memory?
sensory memory that reflects information from the visual system
What is echoic memory?
sensory memory that stores auditory information coming from the ears
What is chunking?
a meaningful gouping of stimuli that can be stored a s a unit in short-term memory
What is declarative memory?
Memory for factual information: faces, names, dates, etc
What is episodic memory?
memory for the biographical details of our individual life
What are flash bulb memories?
snapshot memories, specific, important or surprising events
What is the recency effect?
items presented late in a list are remembered best
What is the primacy effect?
Things first in a list are remembered best
What is the serial positioning effect?
the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list it appears
What is heuristic?
a cognitive shortcut that may lead to a solution
What are algorithms?
a rule that guarantees a solution to a problem
What is syllogistic reasoning?
formal reasoning in which people draw a conclusion from a set of assumptions
What are concepts?
categorization of objects, events or people that share common properties
What are prototypes?
typical, highly representative examples of a concept
What are semantics?
the rules governing the meaning of words and sentences
What is procedural memory?
memory for skills and habits sometimes referred to as "non-declarative"
What is semantic memory?
memory for general knowledge and facts about the world as well as memory for the rules of logic
What is transformation?
an initial state, a goal state and a method for changing the initial state into the goal state
What is the G or g-factor?
single, general factor for mental ability assumed to underlie intellignece in some early theories
What is fluid intelligence?
Intellegence that reflects information processing capabilities of reasoning andmemory
What is crystallized intelligence?
the accumulation of information, skills that are learned and can be applied-declarative
What is primary reinforcement?
satisfies some biological need-physical
What is secondary reinforcement?
more psychological, praise etc
What is a cognitive map?
a mental representation of spatial locations and directions
What is insight learning?
a sudden awareness of the relationships among various elements that had previously appeared to be independent

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