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Psych col. test 2 ch. 6


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the ways in which events and behaviors become acossiated with one another
classical conditioning
basic form of learning in which one stimulus predicts the occurance of another stimulus or event
Ivan Pavlov
dog- salivation- bell-food
an unlearned response ex:salivation
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus which naturally elicits a reflexive behavior...learning is not necessary ex: food
unconditioned response (UCR)
the behavior that results from the unconditioned stimulus
conditioned stimulus (CS)
the stimulus that is paired with the UCS to elicit the CR ex: bell
conditioned Response (CR)
Whatever response the CS elicits as a product of learning
the process by which the CR is first elicited and gradually increases in frequency over repeated trials.
the weakening of the CR in the abscence of the CS.
spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of a previously extinguished CR
stimulus generalization
automatic response to stimuli that are similar to the stimulus to which it is conditioned to
stimulus dicrimination
the process by which an organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS
tone and shock dog experiment
fear conditioning
watson and Rayner- neutral stimulus with fear-provoking stimulus- Little Albert
drug use and situation
cats traped in boxes- getting out lead to pleasure
law of effect
behavior is controlled by its consequences- response that is followed by good consequenses is more probable than a response that is followed by bad consequences
operant conditioning
manipulating the consequences of an organisms behavior to see what effect it has on subsequent behavior
any behavior that is emitted by an organism and can be classified in terms of how it effects the environment
any stimulus that dependant on a behavior increases that behavior over time
reinforcement you like
reinforcement you don't like
positive reinforcement
giving good reinforcement for a behavior
negative reinforcement
taking away something bad in response to a certain behavior
operant extinction
if reinforcement for a behavior doesn't happen, that behavior will become exctinct
a stimulus dependant on a response decreases the probability of that response over time
positive punishment
a behavior is followed by a bad stimulus (ex: touching a hot stove - pain)
negative punishment
a behavior is followed by the removal of a good stimulus (child hits brother- allowance is removed)
discriminative stimuli
certain stimuli that precede a particular response
three-term contingency
the sequence of discriminative stimulus-behavior consequence
coercion model for antiscocial behavior
primary reinforcers
ex: food and water
reinforcing properties are biologically determined
conditioned reinforcers
neutral stimuli that become associated with primary reinforcers and function for operant responses
a more probable behavior can be used to reinforce a less probable one
scheduales of reinforcement
ex: slot machines- win sometimes
raise hand in class- get called on sometimes
partial reinforcement effect
responses resulting from partial reinforcement are more resistant to exctinction than those resulting from continuous reinforcement
fixed- ratio scheduales
the reinforcement comes after the the organism has emitted a fixed number of responses
ex: 10 bar presses - food
variable- ratio scheduale
the average number of responses between reinforcers is predetermined
# of bar presses varies- food
fixed-interval scheduale
a reinforcer is given for the first response made after a fixed period of time.
10 min.- food
variable- interval scheduales
average interval of reinforcement is predetermined
shaping by successive approximations
the reinforcement of any responses or actions that are close to the desired response ex: food for touching wall close to lever
accossionist principles of learning is common to humans and all animals
Biological constraints on learning
any limitations on learning imposed by a species' genetic endowment.
same control of animal behavior inside lab can happen outside lab
instinctual drift
learned behavior drifts toward intstinctual behavior over time
taste-aversion learning
once a certain taste elicits a bad response- they will never eat it again
first documented taste- aversion learning
animal cognition
the cognitive ablilities of animals evolved over time along with their physical forms
rat- maze
cognitive map
rats responded to an internal representation of the overall layout of the maze
observational learning
a person behaves according to how they observed someone else behave
founder of observational learning- bobo doll experiment
best conditioning
the CS precedes the UCS (bell before meat)
worst conditioning
the UCS precedes the CS (meat then bell)
latent inhibition
subject used to neutral stimulus (dog used to bells, bells won't work for conditioning)
second order conditioning
after dog is conditioned to bell, pair bell with light, dog salivates to light
biological limits/boundaries (taste strong in animals - easy for taste aversion)
characteristics of models that promote learning
power, similarity, nurturance

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