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Chapter 09 - Learning


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a relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavioral potential) due to experience
an approach to psychology that emphesizes the study of observable behavio and the role of the enviroment as the determinant of behavior
a basic kind of learning that involves associations between enviromental stimuli and the organism's responses
unditioned/al stimulus
the classical conditioning term for a stimulus that elicits a reflexible response in the absence of learning
unconditioned/al responses
the classical conditioning term for a reflexive response elicited by a stimulus in the absence of learning
conditioned/al stimulus
the classical conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
conditioned/al response
the classical conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus, it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus
classical conditioning (neutral stimulus)
th process by which a previously neutral stimulus acquires the capacity to elicit a response through association with a stimulues that already elicits a similar or related response
a conditioning process in which the reinforcer is removed and a conditioned response becomes independent of the conditioned stimulus
spontaneous recovery
the reapparance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
higher-order conditioning
In classical conditioning, a procedure by which a new stimulus comes to elicit the conditioned response (CR) by virtue of being paired with an effective conditioned stimulus (CS) (eg, first pairings of tone and food, then pairings of bell and tone, until finally the bell elicits salivation by itself)
stimulus generalization
generalization: (psychology) transfer of a response learned to one stimulus to a similar stimulus
stimulus discrimination
in operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but no in the presence of other, similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension
A procedure for weakening a classically conditioned response (CR) by connecting the stimuli that presently evoke it to a new response that is incompatible with the CR.
operant conditioning
learning which is guided by positive reinforcement.

Skinner showed that a rat which is rewarded when it operates on' its environment by pressing a lever will increase its number of lever-presses. It is therefore associating the stimulus (reinforcement) with its own behavior (response). This is referred to as SR conditioning.
reinforcing stimulus: (psychology) a stimulus that strengthens or weakens the behavior that produced it
Punishment is a term from Psychological Learning Theory that has a precise meaning; it refers to something that causes a behavior to lessen in intensity. There is nothing that is intrinsically punishing. A thing is called punishing if, when it is applied, it results in the reduction of behavior that you want to reduce.
primary reinforcer
a stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiological need;; food
primary punisher
a stimulus that is inherently punishing; e.g. electric shock
secondary reinforcer
a stimulus tht has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers. Money , praise, applause, good grades, awards, and gold stars.
secondary punisher
a stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers
criticism, demerits, catcalls, scolding, fines, and bad grades
positive reinforcement
the act of increasing the probability of occurrence of a given behavior (a target behavior, such as correct footwork) by following it with or presenting an action, object, or event such as praise, decals on helmet, or prizes and awards.
negative reinforcement
Reward generated by the removal of painful or stressful conditions or events.
e.g. nagging caeases
positive punishment
something unpleasant may occur following some behavior

negative punishmen
something pleasant may be removed

loss of time with friends to study
discriminative stimulus
a stimulus that provides information about what to do
continuous reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced
intermittent schedule of reinforcement
a reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced
Involves reinforcing behavior already in the repertoire of the individual, which approximates the goal. Use of positive reinforcement for successive approximations and operant extinction for other behaviors to establish the new learning.
successive approximations
in the procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired respnse
instinctive drift
during operant learing the tendency for an organism to revert to instinstive behavior
behavior modification
A systematic application of behavioral techniques to either teach or strengthen an already existing behavior or to decrease inappropriate behavior.
extrinsic reinforcers
rewards associated with the performance of a task ie, money, certification
instrinsic reinforcers
reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced, such as enjoyment of the task and the satisfaction of the accomplishment
latent learning
Learning that occurs without being manifested by performance.

Conditioning in which the reward occurs some time following receipt of the stimulus.
social-cognitive theories
theories that emphasie how behavior is learned and maintained through obsevation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs
observational learning
A mechanism of socialization whereby a child observes another person who serves as a model and then proceeds to imitate what that model does.

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