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School Psych & Intelligence


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Francis Galton's Main Conclusions on intelligence
1. Unitary Faculty
2. Inherited
3. Normally Distributed
Charles Spearman's Main Conclusions on intelligence
Two-Factor Theory: "g" - general ability common to all mental tasks; and "s" - specific ability applicable to a given task
Louis Thurston's Main Conclusions on Intelligence
1. Against unitary notions
2. Used factor analysis to isolate group of primary mental abilities.
3. Included word fluency, memory, spatial relationships, and reasooning
J.P. Guilford's Main Conclusions on intelligence
1. Used factor analysis to isolate 120 elements.
2. Introduced "Divergent Thinking" and "Convergent Thinking"
Raymond Cattell's Main Conclusions on Intelligence
1. Fluid vs. Crystallized intelligence
David Wechsler's main conclusions on intelligence
1. Saw intelligence more globally, and unified. Subscales measure different aspects of a single concept, rather than different types of intelligence. Emphasizes purposeful action, rationality, and environmental adaptation.
Describe evidence that intelligence is hereditary
Identical vs. Fraternal twins
Identical twins raised apart > Fraternal twins raised together
Foster kids more correlated with bio parents than foster parents
Describe median IQ correlations of various relationships
MZ twins reared together: .88
MZ twins reared apart: .75
DZ twins reared togetehr: .53
Parent-child: .50
Siblings reared together: .49
Siblings raised apart: .46
Unrelated childrenr reared together: .17
Describe evidence of environmental influences on IQ
Retarded Infant Orphan Studies (Skeels, 1966): individual attention makes a difference, even 20 years later.
Kagan et al on undoing effects of sensory deprivation
Describe research evidence on the stability of intelligence overtime.
1. Infant IQ test scores are not predictive of adult IQ.
2. Specific measures of infant cognitive fxing may predict future specific areas of adult functioning. (e.g. visual recognition memory and visual attention in infancy predict adult vocabulary)
3. Infant tests (Bayley) have better long-term predictive value for lower-scoring infants. Recommended for use as screening tool for at-risk kids
Describe basic findings on gender differences in intelligence.
1. No differences in overall IQ.
2. Males show better spatial intelligence; females show better verbal.
3. Spatial/verbal differences declining over years. On SAT, males do better on both math and verbal than females.
4. No one knows if differences are genetic or social/culturally based.
Describe evidence that gender differences in intellect are biological in nature:
Sex differences in brain in rats (right hemisphere thicker in males; left thicker in females; linked to exposure (prenatal) to circulating testosterone.
Describe findings on relationship between birth order and intelligence.
First-born children score higher than later-born children. Talking, reading, problem solving all develop earlier.
Describe Zajonc's Confluence Model
Explains findings on relationship betw birth order and IQ. States as number of children increase, intellectual stimulation and other resources decrease for each child. Older children have greater access to stimultion in early years. The closer siblings are in age, the more they will suffer in a large family.
Describe racial differences in IQ:
Caucasians score higher than AA. Evidence that this is genetic is flawed due to environmental effects and cultural bias in testing. E.g. AA children adopted by high SES white parents have IQ scores above national mean for AA children.
What are the appropriate age ranges for IQ testing with the Stanford-Binet?
2-32.5 yo
What are the four content factors on the SB?
Verbal Reasoning
Quantitative Reasoning
Abstract/Visual Reasoning
Short-Term Memory
What are the three higher-level factors of the SB?
Crystallized Abilities\
Fluid-Analytic Abilities
Short-term Memory
Bonus: what are the 15 subtests on the SB?
Verbal Reasoning: Vocab, Comprehension, Absurdities, Verbal Relations
Quantitative Reasoning (Quantitative, Number Series, Equation Building)
Abstract/Visual Reasoning: Pattern Analysis, Copying, Matrices, Paper Folding and Cutting
Short-Term Memory: Bead Memory, Memory for sentences, Memory for digits, Memory for objects
How is an "entry level" defined for the examinee on the SB?
Derived from chronological age and vocab subtest score.
How are basal and ceiling levels determined on the SB?
Basal: point at which person passes both items at two consecutive age levels.
Ceiling: point at which examinee fails 3/4 items at two consecutive age levels.
Define "Deviation IQ"
Scores have same mean and standard deviation across age levels so they can be compared across age levels.
What are the means and s.d.'s for each level of score on the SB?
Content factors and 'g': 100 +/- 16.
Subtests: 50 +/- 8
Describe 3 major changes in the 1986 revision of the SB:
1. The term "IQ" was eliminated. Renamed "Standard Age Score" (or SAS)
2. Similar items grouped under subtests
3. Entry level determined by vocab score.
What are two major advantages of the 1986 revised SB?
1. Differentiates between students with MR and those with specific LD
2. Helps understand why particular students are having difficulty in school
Age Range for the WAIS, WISC, and WPPSI?
WAIS: 16-89
WISC: 6-16
WPPSI: 4-6.5
Three Changes in the 1991 revision for the WISC?
1. Instructions and scoring criteria improved
2. Renormed on more representative sample
3. Administration procedures altered
Three changes to 1997 revision of WAIS (III)?
1. Norms updated and re-anchored
2. Less sexist/ethnic bias for items
3. Elimination of items that were too easy or too ambiguous
Three changes to 1989 revision of WPPSI (R)?
1. Age range expanded so it overalaps with WISC-III at upprer ranges.
2. New item content / editing
3. Renormed
(added Object Assembly)
What is one major criticism of the Weschler scales (compared to the SB?)
They fail to adequatly discriminate among examinees at the extreme ends of IQ continuum. SB better for estimating IQs of very gifted or severely retarded individuals.
What are the means and standard deviations for the Overall IQ scores and subtest scores on the Wechsler scales?
FSIQ, VIQ, PIQ: 100 +/- 15
Subtests: 10 +/- 3
Name and Describe 8 verbal subtests on Wechsler
1. Vocabulary: best measure of 'g'. Taps learning ability, fund of knowledge, concept formation, LTM, and language
2. Information: Crystallized intelligence from interaction of ability and experience. One of best 'g' estimates, resistant to organic d/o or injury
3. Comprehension: judgment and common sense. Moderately good measure of 'g'
4. Arithmetic: reasoning ability, concentration, mental math - moderately good measure of 'g'
5. Similarities: Abstract/logical thinking & concept formation. One of best 'g' measures
6. L-N Seq: (WAIS-III) Concentration, attn, tracking, set-shifting; fair 'g' measure
7. Digit Span (WAIS/WISC) attention & STM; lowest measure of 'g'
8. Sentences: (WPPSI): attention span & STM
Name and Describe 11 Performance Subtests on Wechsler
1. Picture Completion: Visual organization, LT Visual Mem, Concentration, Reasoning (fair 'g' measure)
2. Picture Arrangement (WAIS/WISC): nonverbal reasoning / social situation interp (fair 'g' measure)
3. Block Design: visual-motor coordination, nonverbal concept formation, visio-spatial reasoning. (one of best measures of 'g' on performance scale)
4. Object Assembly (optional on WAIS): perceptual org, visual-motor coordination, part-whole relp perception (fair 'g' measure)
5. Digit-Symbol Coding: (WAIS) visual-motor coordination, processing speed, stm, psychomotor speed. One of lowest 'g' measures.
6. Coding (WISC): similar to D-S Coding on WAIS
7. Matrix Reasoning (WAIS): nonverbal reasoning (analogy, serial reasoning). One of best 'g' measures among performance subtests
8. Animal House (WPPSI only): analagous to DS-Coding and Coding
9. Mazes (WISC, WPPSI-R): planning ability and perceptual org. Poor 'g' measure.
10. Symbol Search (WAIS/WISC): processing speed. Good 'g' measure
11. Geometric Design (WPPSI) visual-motor coordination and perceptual organizationl.
Describe Groth-Marnat's 5-Level interpretation strategy for the WAIS and WISC
Level I: Full Scale IQ: considered most reliable and valid. Can compare examinee to peers (e.g. average, above, below, etc)
Level II: VIQ-PIQ, Factors, Additional Groupings: V-P discrepancies of 12+ pts (given low scatter among subtests) may be significant.
Level III: Subtest Variability (scatter): info re) examinee's cognitive strengths and weaknesses. Verbal subtest scatter of 7+ pts and perf subtest scatter of 9+ pts may be significant (but not diagnositic)
Level IV: Intra-subtest variability: indicates attention deficits or deliberate faking
Level V: Qualitative Analysis: info re) personality and intellectual functioning; i.e. aggression, concretism
What are potential interpretations of VIQ/PIQ discrepencies:
VIQ>PIQ: high level of education, psychomotor slowing due to depression, poor motor-visual integration, right hemispheric damage
PIQ>VIQ: low SES, low academic achievement, conduct d/o, delinquency, lang deficits, LD, left hemi damage
Describe score patterns for Alzheimer's patients on the WAIS:
Complex pattern. Better on Verbal subtests (best on info and vocab; lowest on digit-sym and block des). Discrepancy is at least 10 points. Index pattern PSI(79.6); POI (84.8); WMI (87.2); VCI (93.0)
Describe score patterns for hearing impaired examinees for the Wechsler tests
lower verbal socres, lowest on digit span. Normal Obj Ass and Blk Dsgn. Some difficulty on pict comp, pict arrgmt, coding (with lowest on pict arr)
Describe score patterns for pts with alcoholism on Wechsler scales
Higher VIQ than PIQ, with VIQ in normal range. VCI>POI
What is the reliability estimate range for the WAIS-III
What are the four indeces on the WAIS and how do the subtests load on them?
1. Verbal Comprehension (vocab, info, similarities, comprehension).
2. Perceptual Organization (Picutre Completion, BlkDes, Matrix Reasoning)
3. Working Memory: (Digit Span, Arithmetic, LN Seq)
4. Processing Speed: DS Coding and Symbol Search
What should you do if testing a non-Caucasian or ESL examinee?
Supplement WAIS with a non-verbal measure of g (i.e. Raven Progressive Matrices)
What is the age-range for the Gesell Developmental Scales?
4 weeks through 6 years
How were measures constructed for the Gesell Developmental Scales?
Empirically-Derived and Standardized
What areas are assessed by the Gesell Developmental Scales
Motor, Adaptive, Language, Personal-Social Functioning
Describe the assessment tool used by the Gesell Developmental Scales:
Info given by mother/caretaker and observations of child's activities (compared to norms)
What is the best use for the Gesell Developmental Schedules?
As part of examination for suspected neurological or organic disorders
What is the age range for using Bayley Scales?
2 months - 2.5 years
What are the two indeces and their mean/s.d on the Bayley Scales?
1. Mental Development
2. Psychomotor Development
100 +/- 16
Describe limitations on normative sample for Bayley Scales
U.S., non-institutionalized children
Describe items on Mental Development Index on Bayley Scales:
163 items, including shape discrimination, attn, manipulation of objects, vocalization, memory, problem solving, naming.
Describe items on Psychomotor Development Index on Bayley Scales
81 items: gross and fine motor abilities (walking, sitting, standing, grasping)
How long does the Bayley take to administer?
1 hr +/- 15 min
What instrument often supplements the Bayley Scales?
Infant Behavior Record: systematic record of observations during exam, covering social orientation, cooperativeness, tension, fearrfulness, goal directedness
How is the Bayley regarded by psychologists?
The best measure of infant devpt, providing valuable info about patterns of early devpt
What is the Denver Developmental Scale?
A screening test for developmental delays
What is the age range for administering the Denver Developmental Scale?
infancy - preschool
Where is the Denver Developmental Scale most commonly used?
Pediatricians / other medical practioners - to determine need for further eval
How are data collected on Denver Devptl Scale?
observations of child performing tests and parent report
Define Adaptive Behavior:
ability and competency of individual to meet expected standards of personal independence and social responsibility in relation to age / cultural peers
Why is it necessary to assess adaptive functioning as well as IQ for dxing MR?
To ascertain impairment across environments (i.e. not just in school, aka "6-hour retardate")
What is the age range for administering the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales?
Birth to adulthood
Describe three principles on which the Vineland is based:
1. Adaptive b/h develops with age
2. Adaptive b/h is defined by expectations and standards of others
3. Adaptive behavior relates to performance, not ability
What versions of the Vineland are available and what domains do they measure?
Two interviews (with parent/caregiver) and one questionnaire (for teachers). Measure: communication, daily living skills, socialization, and motor skills.
What is the age range for administering the AAMD Adaptive Behavior Scale?
children age 3 and older
How is data collected for the AAMD ABS?
observations of behaviors in social, personal hygiene, language, and maladaptive behavior domains
Describe items on the Adaptive Behavior Inventory for Children (part of System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment)?
242 interview items; six dimensions of adaptive behavior: family, community, peer relations, non-academic school roles, earner/consumer, self-maintenance.
For which populations should non-verbal, or "culture-free" intelligence measures be considered?
1. Motor Dysfunctions (e.g. CP)
2. Expressive Speech Dysfxn
3. Bilingual / ESL kids
What is the age range for administering the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test?
2.5 years through adulthood
Describe items in the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test?
Examiner shows series of pictures and says a word. Examinee indicates which picture is indicated by word given.
For whom is the Peabody PVT appropriate?
Children with expressive language disorders but no hearing problems; or limited expressive vocabulary
What is the age range for administering the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale?
3y6m through 9y11m
Describe items on the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale
present examinee with set of pictures and ask him/her to indicate which one doesn't belong with the others.
For whom is the Columbia MMS appropriate?
Children with sensorimotor disorders (e.g. CP), and children with difficulties reading or speaking.
For whom is the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude developed and standardized?
Deaf and Hearing Impaired children ages 3-16
Describe items on the Hiskey-Nebraska Test of Learning Aptitude:
12 subtests including: picture identification, memory for color and digits, picture analogies, spatial reasoning, and patterning
What are the age ranges for administering the Leiter International Performance Scale?
Children 2-18 who have reading or speaking problems
Describe items on the Leither International performance scale:
child matches blocks with different stimuli to pictures and fits blocks in appropriate places in a frame.
For whom would the Leiter International Performance Scale be most appropriate?
Newly arriving kids from non-English speaking countries; some cases of autism or selective mutism
What are some of the psychometric objections to the Leither IPS?
no published reliability data for different ages
small number of tests at each age level
What age ranges are appropriate for the Culture Fair Intelligence Test?
4-8 (and MR adults); 8-13 (and avg. intelligence adults); grades 10-16 (and superior adults)
Describe items on the Culture Fair Intelligence Test
Responses to picture and pattern stimuli and nonverbal skills (e.g. seriation, classification, matrices)
What is the current consensus on culture-fair intelligence tests?
Not possible to design one, due to even non-verbal tests relying on logic (a cultural value). Minority children do no better on nonverbal tests than on standard IQ tests.
What does Raven's Progressive Matrices measure?
perceptual ability and spatial logic
What does the System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment emphasize?
The need to engage in broad-based assessment
What areas are assessed by SOMPA?
Cognitive processing, social competency, motivation, outer-directedness, locus of control, attitudes towards school, creativity
What ages are administered the SOMPA:
children age 5-11
Describe the SOMPA Battery
6 measures: adaptive behavior inventory, sociocultural scales, WISC/WPPSI, health history, Bender-Gestalt, set of physical dexterity tests.
What is the derived index of the SOMPA and how is the standardization process different, compared to other scales?
Estimated Learning Potential Scale
Scores have been differentially normed for Anglo, Latino, and AfAm groups.
Name group intelligence tests for adults:
Army Alpha (literate); Army Beta (WWI). WWII: Army General Classification Test; Current: Armed Forces Qualification Test (AFQT)
Name group intelligence for children?
Otis-Lennon Mental Ability Test, Cognitive Ability Test, School and College Ability Test
Name personnel screening group intelligence tests
Otis Self-Administered Test of Mental Ability
Wonderlic Personnel Test
What legal restrictions exist for the use of group intelligence tests in schools?
Can't be used to determine class placement
What is the general consensus on the difference between aptitude and achievement tests?
Aptitude tests measure a person's potential capacity for future learning and achievement tests measure person's developed capacity (i.e. what he/she has already learned)
What term has been offered for those who question the distinction between aptitude and achievement tests?
Ability Tests
Describe overall finding regarding the effects of short-term, intensive coaching on SAT scores:
Improvements are minimal, ranging from 10 to about 40 point increases
What factors influence the effectiveness of coaching in terms of improving test scores?
The particular test, method of assessing gains, initial level of person being coached
Which section of the SAT is somewhat more improved by coaching?
How does the use of pretests influence the effectiveness of a coaching program?
Increases it - through a sensitization effect
What is the key factor in enhancing the effectiveness of practice tests
Similarity to the real test (best if identical)
What is the relationship between initial ability and coaching benefits:
Coaching is more effective for people with high initial ability
What types of questions are most amenable to coaching?
The more complex the item, the more advantage obtained from coaching
Define "Test-Wiseness":
a generalized test-taking skill that is independent of IQ, anxiety, motivation, or achievement orientation
What is the genral consensus on "test-wiseness"?
Accounts for little (less than 3% of variance) on standardized tests. Isn't much more than person's applying his/her general cognitive ability to the test-taking task
In what areas do "gifted" children excel?
higher self-concept (esp related to academics); better metacognitive skills, may process info more efficiently, particularly on novel tasks that require insight.
Define Test Anxiety
Fear of failure in a situation in which person will be evaluated
What's the relationship between test anxiety and performance?
high anxiety leads to lower achievement scores and decreased educational attainment
How can people with high test-anxiety be helped?
Nonstressful, highly structured learning environments
Name three publications relevant to testing?
Standards for Edcuational and Psychological Tests (APA); Mental Measurement Yearbooks; Tests in Print
Identify six components of effective schools
1. Strong Leadership, active & energetic principals
2. Orderly and structured but not rigid & oppressive
3. Teachers participate in decision-making
4. Teachers / staff with high expectations for child learning
5. Emphasis on academics
6. Frequent monitoring of student performance
Which is better, small or large schools, and why?
Small schools because of more opportunities for kids to assume leadership roles and feel more involved.
Describe the basic role of the typical school psychologist.
To assess problems in schools (observation, interview, formal testing), report results, and recommend further intervention.
Describe three models of school consultation:
1. Mental Health Model (consultant interacts with parents, teacher, principal to help him/her resolve a problem involving child)
2. Behavioral Model: (focus directly on a presenting problem of consultee (i.e. teacher's style). 3. Adlerian Model (emphasize preventive interventions, parent and teacher education, and application of Adlerian Theory to school setting.
Describe the research findings on school interventions provided directly to students (rather than teachers, parents, etc)
They are of limited value compared to those focusing on teachers and parents - which is more efficient as the insights gained can be generalized to other children / problems in the school.
Define Curriculum-Based Assessment:
Type of educational assessment linked to a particular curriculum that provides feedback both about student performance as well as about the instruction itself (style, not content; such as pace, sequencing)
Describe three underlying assumptions of the Montessori Teaching Method
1. Cognitive development is a product of individual and environment interacting.
2. Children are active learners with an innate drive for self-development that can be aided by an orderly but stimulating environment.
3. External reinforcement for learning is not necessary.
Describe what goes on in a Montessori classroom:
Very little didactic instruction. Children encouraged to select own activities within environment that contains variety of "self-teaching" toys and materials. Teachers observe, assist when true need arises, and encourage kids to exercise self-discipline.
What is the overall aim of Montessori Teaching Method?
To promote motor, sensory, and language development (seen as prerequisites for academic learning at age 4)
What is one main criticism of the Montessori method?
Doesn't provide enough opportunities for small group interaction, cooperative activities, and verbal exchanges with peers and teachers.
Describe Project Head Start
Initiated by federal govt in 1965
Widespread early intervention program for children of poverty
Typically involves a year of preschool education, nutritional & medical services, and parent involvement in education and program administration
Describe the research on the effectiveness of Head Start
An initial study (Westinghouse) found only marginal effects, but is now regarded as flawed. Subsequent longitudinal studies have shown:
1. Increased IQ Scores and School Achievement throughout early school years (those these gains decline thereafter).
2. Lasting decrease in special ed placements, increased pride in academic achievement, and increased vocational aspirations.
3. Teenagers who participated in Head Start more likely to graduate high school and less likely to engage in delinquent b/h than matched controls.
What are the effects of Bilingual Education for immigrant non-English speaking kids?
They learn English and subject matter at least as well as children in all English programs.
How long does it take immigrant non-English speaking kids to achieve grade level on tests of academic language?
All English programs: 5-8
Bilingual: 6 years
What characterizes quality bilingual programs?
Effort made to provide material students are interested in learning and to create an anxiety-free environment
Define and describe effects of "Ability Tracking"
Refers to grouping children in classrooms on the basis of ability level. Effects are negative for low- to moderate achievers (reduced motivation, lower self-esteem, lower achievement). Few positive effects for high-achievers found - those observed typically are short-lived.
Describe gender bias observed in teachers
Both male and female teachers pay more attention to boys than girls. Attention is both negative and positive. Number of possible reasons have been explored, most notably that boys call more attention to themselves than girls through acting-out behavior.
Describe an ideal cooperative learning situation:
Students are assigned to groups, 4-6 members each, that are representative of classroom diversity in terms of gender, achieveemnt level, race / ethnicity, handicap.
Describe four widely used forms of cooperative learning
1. Student Team Learning: teams compete with each other on quizzes. Individual student performance based on degree of improvement from his/her past performance. Also can involve academic games
2. Jigsaw: each student in team given a unique piece of info on topic that whole group is studying. They are given info and then return to groups to teach members what they have learned
3. Learning Together: students work together to complete a single worksheet
4. Group Investigation: Teams are assigned task and are responsible for assigning subtasks to each member. Tasks are open-ended investigation and use variety of materials. Groups then present finding to rest of class.
Describe research on the effectiveness of cooperative learning
Generally positive effect on achievement (66% of studies in a 1983 lit review)
What distinguishes successful from unsuccessful cooperative learning programs?
Student accountability: positive effects less likely when students can shirk reponsibility and let others do the work. Note: grade level, urban vs rural setting, achievement level, race do not differentiate successful and unsuccessful programs.
Aside from achievement, what other positive effects have been cited in research on cooperative learning?
1. Increase in quality and quantity of cross-ethnic friendships & interxns
2. Improved relps between mainstream and non-mainstreamed students
3. Increased self-esteem, altruism, and probability that students will be liked by others.
4. Reduced interpersonal problems in ED students
Describe 5 components of the 1975 Federal Education for all Handicapped Children Act
1. Free & appropriate education available to all handicapped children betw. 3 and 21 years of age.
2. Testing: Non-biased testing & evaluation procedures. Placement is determined by more than one test, and tests assess specific educational deficits (not just IQ)
3. IEP's include: goals, services, eval criteria
4. Least restrictive environment
5. Evals and reports available to parents. Parents can obtain independent evals. Appeal procedures are available if parents disagree with decision.
Describe 3 components of the Buckley Amendment (Family Educational Rights & Privacy Act)
1. Students 18+ and parents have right to access educational records and challenge any content.
2. Educational records include psychologist evals and other materials, but not his/her personal and individual notes
3. Irrelevant and obsolete records are destroyed (except those being used in research and those for which review request is outstanding)
What were two court cases on the issue of testing in schools?
1. Larry P. v. Riles banned placement of students in special ed (educable mentally retarded classes or EMR) on the basis of scores on IQ tests (WISC-R and SB). Rationale was the tests are culturally biased and practice violated "least restrictive environment" principle.
2. PACE v. Hannon: judge found only 8 items on the SB and WISC-R were biased. Judge stated that since IQ tests are only part of total asst, the bias was inconsequential in the context of entire placement procedure for EMR.
Issues continue to be litigated and are unresolved.
What does research say about "Mainstreaming"?
Though sometimes creates extra challenges for teachers, has beneficial effects on academic achievement of students with disabilities.

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