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Psych test #3


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associative learning
-understanding that 2 events are linked to one another (ie. hear scary music, know that something scary is going to happen)
-occurs through the process of conditioning
-the process of adapting to stimuli that do not change
-with repetitive stimuli, our responsiveness over time decreases
-will stop paying attention to stimuli that are repreated and don't signal important environmental events
classical conditioning
-a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that elicits a reflex until the neutral stimulus along comes to elicit a response
-survival mechanism (ie. eat poisenous food and get sick, next time you taste the food you don't eat it)
Pavlov's experiment
-noticed that dogs salivate even when food is not present
-associated meat powder on the tongue and the sound of a bell (eventually, the bell alone caused salivation)
natural reflex
a swift, automatic response to a stimulus
neutral stimulus
-one that initially does not elicit the studied reflex, but will elicit other responses (ie. at the sound of a bell, the dog will orientate towards it)
unconditioned stimulus
-the stimulus that causes the natural reflex (meat powder)
unconditioned response
-the natural reflex (salivation)
conditioned stimulus
-the neutral stimulus that is paired with the unconditioned stimulus (bell)
conditioned response
-the learned response to the conditioned stimulus (salivation)
-the phase in classical conditioning in which one begins to associate a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned response, resulting in the neutral stimulus eliciting a conditioned response
factors associated with acquistion
-timing (works best with CS precedes UCS
-predictability (CS always signals UCS)
-stimuli strenght (CR will be greater if the UCS is strong)
-attention (have multiple stimuli in real world, the stimuli you were attending most closely is the one more strongly associated with UCS)
-biopreparedness (the affinity for certain events to be linked ie. nausea and food, pain and noise)
-repeated presentation of the CS without the UCS results in not associating CS with UCS
spontaneous recovery
-the reappearance of the CR after extinction, and without further pairings of the CS and UCS
-the quick relearning of a CR following extinction
-stimulus generalization occurs when a stimulus similar but not identical to the original stimulus also elicits a response (adaptive function for daily life, don't have to learn to associate each seperate stimulus)
-stimulus discrimination is a process by which individuals learn to differentiate between stimuli that are similar but not identical (being afraid of lions but not housecats)
operant conditioning
-learning the consequences of behavior
-people learn associates between the say they act and the stimuli that follows them
Thorndike Law of Effect
-any response that produces a satisfying effect gradually becomes stronger, any response that does not produce a satisfying response becomes weaker
-instumental conditioning: responses are strengthened when they are instumental in producing rewards
BF Skinner
-extended Thorndikes theories
-an organism learns a response by acting on the environment
-wanting to analyze how behavior is changed by its consequences (skinner box)
basic components of operant conditioning
-operant (a response that has some effect on the world)
- reinforcer (increases the probability that an operant behavior will occur again)
positive reinforcers
-strenghten a response if they are experienced after that response has occured (reward)
-can be tangible or not (food/money vs. attention/praise)
negative reinforcers
-strenthen the probability that a response will occur if removed after that response (the removal of unpleasant stimuli such as pain, noise etc)
-ie. aspirin is followed by removal of pain
primary reinforcers
-fulfills biological need (ie food)
conditioned reinforcers
-secondary reinforcers
-learned (money, good grades)
immediate reinforcers
-more powerful
-smoking, alcohol, drugs
delayed reinforcers
-for humans, can be just as powerful
-paycheck at end of week
Premack principle
-high frequency behaviors can be used as reinforcers for low frequency behaviors
-ie. if you eat your peas, you can have some ice cream
continuous reinforcement
-every correct response received a reward (every time you raise your hand you get money)
-learning is fast
-once reinforcement stops, extinction is very fast
parial reinforcement: fixed ratio
-provide a reward after a fixed number of responses (every third time you raise your hand you get money)
- produces relatively high rate of responding, usually with a brief pause following the reinforcement
-can lead to fatigue and low quality
Parial reinforcement: variable ratio
-give a reward after a given number of responses, but that number varies from one reinforcement to the next
-unpredictable, similar to gambling
-high rate of response
-this behavior is hardest to extinguish
parial reinforcement: fixed interval
-reward the first response displayed after a fixed amount of time (give money every 5 min. if hand is raised)
-results in higher frequency of behavior as time approaches, and low rate of responding after reinforcement
partial reinforcement: variable interval
-reward first response displayed after a period of time, but the amount of time varies
-produces slow, steady responding
-ie. pop quizzes
-prevents an aversive stimulus or removs a pleasant stimulus to decrease the frequency of a behavior
-ie. come home after curfew, therefore can go to the dance
disadvantages of punishment
-doesn't eliminate unwanted behavior (just suppresses it)
-not effective unless it immedieately follows the behavior
-can becomes aggressive and abusive
-doesn't provide alternate behavior

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