# Experimental Psyc Test 2 Review

## Terms

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- What are experimental studies called that involve more than one IV?
- Factorial designs
- What advantage do factorial designs have?
- They yield possible interaction effects
- When one IV affects DV differently across the levels of a second IV this is called an
- interaction effect
- How are factorial designs symbolized?
- Using shorthand notation
- What is shorthand notation
- way to express factorial designs using numbers
- what 3 pieces of information does shorthand notation give us?
- the number of variables, the number of levels of each treatment or IV, the total number of treatment conditions or groups
- IF we have 2 IV with 3 levels each, how would this be written in shorthand notation
- 3 x 3
- If we have a 3 x 3 how many levels of each variable do we have
- 3 for each IV
- If we have a 3 x 3, how many variables do we have
- 2 variables
- If we have a 3x3, how many different treatment combinations were used?
- 9
- What are the Interaction effects of an experiment?
- they allow to test if 2 variables or more when used in combination, produce effects that could not be seen by examining each variable in isolation
- What are the Main effects?
- effects that one IV has in isolation of the other (holding it constant)
- Name a variable that cannot be assigned but is often treated as an IV
- subject variable
- Which variable is controlled or assigned by the researcher
- IV
- Which variable are researchers manipulating during an experiment
- IV
- Which type experiment generates the strongest cause and effect statements
- true experiment
- Name a variable that represents an alternative explanation
- confounding variable
- Which variable varies systematically
- confounding variable
- When each person in the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to one of the treatments this is what?
- random assignment
- These variables are not usually a problem because they vary randomly
- extraneous variables
- Variables such as intelligence, anxiety are called what?
- hypothetical constructs
- Which experiment has the least control
- pre-experimental
- With which type experiment can we use random assignment
- true experiment
- Which design uses intact groups?
- quasi
- part of this term means to minimize measurement error?
- MAXMINCON
- What type experiment is done before the actual experiment is conducted?
- pilot study
- Another name for within subjects design?
- repeated measures
- What type design involves only measuring each person once?
- between subjects
- how do you deal with order effects in within subjects design
- counterbalance
- What type design requires fewer people and is more powerful?
- within subjects
- What is the ability to detect an effect if one actually exists
- power
- Besides order effects, what is another disadvantage of within subjects design
- carryover effects
- Fatigue effects and practice effects are examples of what?
- order effects
- An attempt to control for order effects by varying the order in which subjects receive treatment is called?
- counterbalancing
- The group that performs an evaluation of your research before you start
- IRB
- What does IRB stand for?
- institutional review board
- You must get permission from participants before doing research in writing called
- informed consent
- When the study is complete you must do this to your participants
- debrief
- This means do no harm to your participants
- nonmaleficence
- This means do as much good to your participants as possible
- beneficence
- This means give credit where credit is due
- justice
- This means be true to your obligations
- fidelity
- The probability of making a type I error is equal to this
- alpha
- This means an analysis of variance
- ANOVA
- This is equal to a type 2 error
- beta
- Being able to convict a guilty man then you must have had the ability to detect an effect which is known as?
- power
- IF we reject the null but we should not have this is a?
- type I error
- IF we fail to reject the null but we should have rejected it, this is?
- type 2 error
- If you found a guilty man innocent, then you had lack of power or what type error?
- type 2
- Which test is used for only two groups
- t-test
- IF there are 3 or more groups, then this type test should be done
- ANOVA
- If you conclude that there is a relationship between things that don't exist, then it's a type? error
- I
- IF you failed to find something that does exist, this is what type error
- type 2
- Fatigue and practice are examples of what?
- order effects
- The primary concern of this group is to perform a risk-benefit analysis
- IRB
- IF a study has good control, what is controlled
- confounding variables
- How are order effects controlled
- counterbalancing
- Joe told his participants they would have to consume caffeine, but he gave them adrenaline instead. What primary ethical concern did he violate
- fidelity
- If participants always performed best the last time they were tested, what problem might there be?
- practice effects
- What is also known as your statistical significance level
- alpha
- What should be done before every experiment involving humans
- informed consent
- Unwanted explanations in a study are known as what
- confounding variables
- What type reliability involves giving two similar but different tests to each person
- alternate forms
- A test with only one question lacks what type validity
- content validity
- Clues in a study that reveal the true nature of the study are known as what
- demand characteristics
- If Joe failed to give credit to his partner in research, what primary ethical concern did he violate
- justice
- What type study is a combination of between and within
- mixed
- If a study accurately determines who will succeed in college while they are in high school, it has what type validity
- predictive
- What do you call a plausible but deceptive story told at the beginning of research used to disguise the true nature of the study
- cover story
- This has occurred if a participant's behavior changes simply becasue they know they are being studied
- Hawthorne effect, reactivity
- Everyone has an equal chance of being selected
- simple random sample
- If neither the participants nor the person collecting data know who got what in an experiment, the study would be called
- double blind
- A strong positive correlation between 2 versions of the same test provides evidence for this
- measure of equivalence
- Reactivity in an experiment may also be called this
- hawthorne effect
- This term means do no harm
- nonmaleficence
- What do you call clues in an experiment that let the participants know how they should respond
- demand characteristics
- This means stay true to your design
- fidelity
- If two or more variables combine to influence the DV in ways that neither would alone, this is present
- interaction effects
- The influence that a single variable has in a factorial design?
- main effect