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edpy442 ch11


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specific behavioral technique

6.Contingency Contracts
spell out behaviors to be performed, changed or discontinued; reward associated with achievement of these goals
role of counselor
(reality therapy)
-teach & model
-built relationship by dev. trust
-emphasis on choice
-positive, constructive actions
stimulus response model is
-the application of classical conditioning (also called respondent learning & stimulus response model)
-learning occurs through the association of 2 stimuli known as the condition of involuntary responses
general behavioral techniques

2.shedules of reinforcement
a)continous rein.-behavior first learned should be rein. everytime it occurs
b)intermittent rein.-once learned, rein. less frequently
c)operate according to ratio(# of responses) or interval(length of time)
d)fixed ratio schedule-rein. based on the # of responses made. ex.being payed for the # of items produced
e)fixed interval schedule-occurs on regular time schedule. ex.salary
f)variable interval schedule-rein. is obtained irregularly. ex.slot machine
g)variable interval schedule-irregular time schedule. ex.told good job by boss twice one day & not again for a month
general behavioral techniques

1. use of reinforcers:
a)reinforcer-when they follow a behavior they increase the probability of the bahvior reoccuring
b)positive reinforcer-considered pleasurable by the affected person
c)negative reinforcer-aversive stimulus is removed when a desired behavior has occured. ex.mother nags daughter until she does the dishes
d)primary reinforcer-valued intrinsically.
e)secondary reinforcer-some kind of token.
general behavioral technique

-present an aversive stimulus to a situation to eliminate or supress a behavior
general behavioral technique

-elimination of a behavior because of a withdrawl of it reinforcement
general behavioral techniques

-behavior learned in steps through successive approximation
-occurs when a person practices a behavior or imagines doing a task more than he previously had (focused imagery)
-chaining-be aware of response sequence they wish to establish, what follows what & how
general behavioral techniques

-consistent in doing the actions desired without depending on anyone else for support
-self observation-person notices particular behaviors he or she does
-self recording-recording these behaviors
-self monitoring-count the occurances of behaviors normally done without thought to increase awareness
general behavioral techniques

-display of behaviors in the environment outside where they originally learned
specific behavioral technique

2.environment planning
client set's up part of the environment to promote or limit certain behaviors
specific behavioral techniques

1.behavioral rehersal
-practicing a desired behavior until it is performed the way the client wishes
aka. role playing
specific bahavioral technique

3.systematic desensitization
-help overcome anxiety in specific situations
-hierarchy, 0-100(most upsetting), work through events
-reciprocal inhibition- idea that a person cannot feel anxious & relaxed at the same time
specific behavioral technique

4.assertiveness training
person should be free to expree thoughts and feelings without undue anxiety
Skinner can be classified as a behavioral determinist:
because of his emphasis on learning as the primary determinant of human actions
strengths of reality therapy
-many different populations
-short term treatment
-promotes responsibility & freedom
-addresses conflict resolution
-stresses the present
(reality therapy)
1.become psychologically strong & rational
2.realize they have choices clarify want they want in life
4.realistic plan to achieve needs & wishes
5.focus on behavior & present
6.eliminate punishment & excuses from client's life
specific behavioral technique

7.Implosion & Flooding
-implosive therapy-desensitizing a client to a situation by having him imagine an anxiety producing situation that may have dire consequences(person is not taught to relax first)
-flooding-less traumatic, imagined scene does not have dire consequences
aversive technique

-first restore the envirenment to its natural state and then make it better than normal
ex.kid throws food in lunchroom, must clean it up and wax the floor
Aversive technique

1.time out
client is seperated from the oppertunity to have positive rein.
most success with cognitive behavioral counseling:
1.goal orientated
2.action orientated
3.interest in changing
(reality therapy)
-action oriented
-teaching as primary technique
-WDEP system
aversive technique

3.covert sensitization
undesired behavior is eliminated by associating it with unpleasantness
aversive techniques are not
usually effective by themselves
focus-learning principles
Watson (advocate of behaviorism in infancy)concerned with:
-outward observations
-little Albert
behavioral approach
-help clients learn new, appropriate ways of acting or modify or eliminate excessive actions
-adaptive behaviors replace maladaptive behaviors
3 main approaches to behavioral therapy
1.stimulus response model
2.applied behavior analysis cognitive theory
stimulus response model

cr-salivating to the bell
ucr-naturally salivating when food is present
cognitive behavioral techniques

1. cognitive restructing
-clients are taught to identify, evaluate & change self defeating thoughts that negatively influence their behavior
-done by getting them to vocalize their self talk to others & then change it
-method-self instructional training
stimulus response model
1.cs not (does not initially elicit) cr
2.ucs (elicits) ucr
3.cs + ucs (presented together elicit) ucr
4.repeat #3 a few times
5.cs (elicits) cr
limitations of reality therapy
-too much hee & now
-ignores biology
-too simple
-overly moralistic
-depends on verbal interaction
-keeps changing focus
-depends on good couselor client relationship
reality therapy

choice theory
individuals are ultimately self determining
behavioral techniques
1. use of reinforcers:

a)reinforcer-when they follow a behavior they increase the probability of the bahvior reoccuring
b)positive reinforcer-considered pleasurable by the affected person
c)negative reinforcer-aversive stimulus is removed when a desired behavior has occured. ex.mother nags daughter until she does the dishes
d)primary reinforcer-valued intrinsically.
e)secondary reinforcer-some kind of token.
goals in behavioral therapy
-make good adjustment
-eliminate negative behavior
-aquire healthy way of acting
Glasser-identity in early life has 2 critical periods:
1. 2-5:learn early socialization skills, need love, acceptance, guidence & involvement of their parents
2. 5-10:gain knowledge & self concept, failure identity if they have socialization difficulties
role of counselor in a behavioral orientation
-act as consultant, advisor, teacher, reinforcer & facilitator
-diagnosis-describe client according to behaviors they display (many in DSM)
applied behavior analysis

operant conditioning
-how individuals operate in their environment
-person is rewarded or punished for actions, thereby learning to discriminate between behaviors that bring rewards and those that don't
once learned these associations can be unlearned, with new ones taking place
applied behavioral analysis
-based on operant conditioning
-person must be involved as an active participant with the environment
social cognitive theory synonyms:
-observational learning
-social modeling
-vicarious learning
applied behavior analysis uses:
4.stimulus control
social cognitive thoery
people aquire new knowledge and behavior by observing other people and event
social cognitive theory

-saves time, energy and effort in aquiring a new skill
counselor & client must reach mutually agreed on goal, 4 step to do so:
1.define the problem
2.take a dev. history
3.establish specific goals
4.determine the best methods for change
self instructional training
-counselor models appropriate behaviors
-client performs these behaviors while verbally repeating the reasons behind the actions
cognitive behavioral technique

2.stress innoculation
-preventive technique
-taught sets of coping skills to help them handle stressful events
-requires follow up sessions
cognitive behavioral technique

3.thought stopping
-counselor suddenly yalls STOP when the client is thinking irrational thoughts
associated with psychological need is:
-identity-dev. of a psychologically healthy selg
-success identity-love & worth
-failure identity-maladjusted personality with lack of confidence & the tendency to give up easily
strengths of the behavioral approach
-deals directly with symptoms
-focus is here & now
-several techniques available
-based on learning theory
-supported by research
-objective in defining & dealing with problems
reality therapy (Glasser)

focus on consiousness
-humans operate at a consious level
-they are not driven by unconsious forces or instincts
reality therapy
-everyone has a health/growth force that is manifested on two levels:
1. physical-need to obtain life sustaining necessities like food, shelter
2. psychological-belonging, power, freedom & fun
limitations of behavioral approach
-deals only with explicit behavior
-approach is applied machanically
-best under controlled conditions that can't be replicated in normal counseling seesions
-ignores past history
-does not consider dev. stages
reality therapy
-emphasizes choices that people can make to change their lives
-flexible, friendly, firm & action oriented
reality therapy
2 general concepts
1.the environment necessary for conducting counseling
2.procedures leading to change

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