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Pharmacy Technician Midterm I Review


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What is an antiandrogen? What is it used to treat?
Antiadrogen drugs inhibit the biological effects of androgenic hormones. Androgenic hormones are steroid hormone, such as testosterone or androsterone, that controls the development and maintenance of masculine characteristics. Thus, antiadrogen drug are used to treat illnesses stemming from the production of excess male hormones, such as prostate cancer.
What is an OTC drug that can be used to treat asthma?
Generic Name - Epinephrine

Trade Names - Adrenalin (inhaler), Bronkaid (IM), Medihaler (SC), Primatene (IV)
What are shingles? Name the anti-viral drug that is used to treat shingles?
Shingles is a disease caused by the varicella-zoster virus, the same virus that causes chickenpox. After an attack of chickenpox, the virus lies dormant in the nerve tissue. As we get older, it is possible for the virus to reappear in the form of shingles.

There is no cure for shingles, but the severity and duration of an attack of shingles can be significantly reduced if patient is treated immediately with antiviral drugs, such as ACYCLOVIR.
In a hospital setting, how do physicians place their prescription orders?
Via medication orders.

In the hospital pharmacy the medication order is the equivalent to the prescription in the retail pharmacy. ALL prescriptions (OTC and Rx) require a medication order.
What are the two most common side effects for opioid cough syrup?
dizziness and constipation

opioid - def. a drug, hormone, or other chemical substance having sedative or narcotic effects similar to those containing opium or its derivatives
Which government agency regulates pharmacy tech and pharmacist licensure?
The State Board of Pharmacy
What color do Gram-negative bacteria stain? Gram-positive bacteria?
Pink, Purple
What is the unit dose system?
The features of unit-dose system are the following:

1) a copy of the original physician's order is received by the pharmacy and is used as the dispensing document.

2) medications, including liquid and injectible medications, are prepared in ready-to-use forms and are dispensied per individual patient.

3) Individual doses of medications are labeled.

4) the pharmacy receives more pateint information, including drug allergies, weight, and possibly a medication history.

5) no more than a 24 hour supply of medication is dispensed.

--The advantages of using this system:
1) reduction in medication errors
2) improved medication control
3) decreased overall cost of medication distribution
4) more precise medication billing
What is a long term effect of alcoholism?
Alcohol, in the long term, induces brain atrophy and decreases intellectual function.
What are some Schedule 5 drugs?
Cough syrup with codeine,
Lomotil (diphenoxylate hydrochloride with atropine sulfate)
What are some effects of antipsychotic medications?
Extrapyramidal symptoms, often abbreviated EPS, is a neurological side effect of antipsychotic medication.
What is MAOI? What should patients taking MAOI avoid?
MAOI is an acronym for Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a class of antidepressants used for the treatment of depression. Those on MAOI should avoid any fermented foods (wine, cheese, yogurt, etc). Also, do not mix with SSRI class of drugs (ex - prozac).
To what antimicrobial drug is there a high rate of resistance to by the bacteria "Staphylococcus"
What is the form DEA-41 used for?
Once controlled drugs are destroyed, the DEA requires the submission of this form.
Why is it important to track the dispensing of drugs and medications?
So that we can ensure proper use of medication.
What are some duties of a long-term care pharmacist?
Distribution and consultation
What do the following abbreviations translate into?
1) buccal
2) SL
3) IV
4) PV
5) PR
6) SC/SQ
7) ID
1) Buccal - Between the cheeck and gum
2) SL - sublingual
3) IV - intravenous
4) PV - per vagina
5) PR - per rectum
6) SC/SQ - subcutaneous
7) ID - intradermal
Who is responsible for restocking drugs?
The pharmacist and the pharmacy technician.
What does the term "mic" stand for?
mic = minimum inhibition concentration;

When administering antimicrobial drugs, follow the "mic" standard so that the dosage is not too high or too low. If it is too low, the bacteria can grow resistant to the treatment. If it is too high, it can lead to an excess amount of unnecessary drugs in the system.
What are the combination of drugs used to treat TB?
Isonazid, rifampin, and pyrazinamide.
What are diuretic drugs? Why are they administered?
Diuretic drugs are substances or drugs that tend to increase the discharge of urine. In essence, they are "water pills" and they are used to treat hypertension by reducing the amount of water in the body and, thus, relieving the heart from pumping so much liquid.
What are antimetabolite drugs?
A group of anti-cancer drugs which prevent cells growing and dividing by blocking the chemical reactions required in the dividing by blocking the chemical reactions required in the cell to produce DNA.

Drugs of this type include 6 mercaptopurine, azathioprine, thioguanine, methotrexate.
What are some seizure medications?
Trade Name - Dilantin
Generic Name - Phenytoin
Drug Class - Hydentoin
What are H1 and H2?
H1 = hystemins and they are normally associated with allergies.

H2 = associated with GI.
What drugs are commonly ordered in mEq?
mEq = one-thousandth of an equivalent.

Drugs with Mg, Potassium and Sodium Bicarbonate are commonly ordered in mEq.
What is guanethidine commonly used for?
Guanethidine is used to treat high blood pressure. It works by decreasing your heart rate and relaxing the blood vessels so that blood can flow more easily through the body. WARNING: Due to severe side effects, guanethidine is no longer available in the U.S.
What is emulsion?
1. A mixture of two immiscible (unblendable) substances. One substance (the dispersed phase) is dispersed in the other (the continuous phase).

2. A suspension of small globules of one liquid in a second liquid with which the first will not mix.
Identify the following abbreviations:
1) NPO
2) Stat
3) PRN
1) Nothing by mouth
2) Immediately
3) As needed
What are antiestrogen drugs and what are they used for?
Antiestrogen: A substance that can prevent the full expression of estrogen.

Antiestrogens act by exerting antagonistic effects on target tissues (androgens and progestogens act in this way) or by competing with estrogens for access to receptor sites located on the cell surface.

For example, the drug tamoxifen (brand name: Nolvadex) is an antiestrogen that is used in the treatment of breast cancer and to reduce the breast cancer incidence in high-risk women.
When did the Industrial Era occur? How did the Industrial Era affect the practice of pharmacy today?
Era of relevance is late 19th century, specifically 1867-1940. The impetus for industrialization becoming a factor in the practice of pharmacy in America was the occurrence of major wars: the Civil War, World War I, and World War II. These major conflicts led to the development of weapons capable of causing increasingly serious and more frequent injuries. This, in turn, led to a greater demand for medicines, which in turn demanded a major shift in the process of medicine production. The most important manufacturing advance in the industrialization of the practice of pharmacy was the development of new machines for rapid mass production of medicines.
What is form DEA-106 used for?
When a robbery and/or theft occurs at a pharmacy, the DEA requires pharmacies to submit a DEA-106 with a detail account of what was lost/stolen.
What are "orphan drugs"?
The granting of the orphan drug status is designed to encourage the development of drugs which are necessary but would be prohibitively expensive/un-profitable to develop under normal circumstances.

In the United States, an orphan drug is any drug developed under the Orphan Drug Act of 1983, a federal law concerning rare diseases ("orphan diseases"), defined as diseases affecting fewer than 200,000 people in the United States or low prevalence is taken as prevalence of less than 5 per 10,000 in the community . This has been adopted as a subclause of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations. Because medical research and development of drugs to treat such diseases is financially disadvantageous, companies that do so are rewarded with tax reductions and a monopoly on that drug for an extended time (twenty years). Under the act many drugs have been developed, including drugs to treat HIV/AIDS, cystic fibrosis, and snake venom.
What is the enzyme system in the liver that is associated with drug interaction?
Cytochrome P450.

Cytochrome P450 oxidase (commonly abbreviated CYP) is a generic term for a large number of related, but distinct, oxidative enzymes important in breaking down chemicals such as drugs and endogenous compounds.
What is gonadotropin?
Gonadotropins are protein hormones secreted by gonadotrope cells of the pituitary gland of vertebrates. The two principle gonadotropins are luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). The gonads -- testes and ovaries -- are the primary target organs for LH and FSH.

Gonadotropin cells are targeted for treatment of infertility.
How many refills are allowed for controlled/uncontrolled drugs?
For control 2, none.

For control 3, 4 and 5 - 5 refills per 6 months
What type of service is now more impacted for pharmacists?
Pharmaceutical care
Who is C.D. Helper?
He established the concept of pharmaceutical care in the late 1980s.
What is Enalopril?
Enalopril is the generic name for Vasetec. It is an ACE inhibitor used to treat HTN. It can be taken PO or administered IV.
Identify the following abbrevations:
1) OU
2) OS
3) AD
1) Both eyes
2) Left eye
3) right ear
What does "allergic rhinitis" mean?
Runny nose
Define antagonism (think pharmacy).
Antagonism is the case when two drugs act to decrease the effect of each other.
True or False: When a pharmacist administers a drug without a prescription, it is considered a felony.
What Schedule of drugs is considered to have no medicinial value?
Schedule 1
What are benzodiazepines?
The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs that are often used for short-term relief of severe, disabling anxiety or insomnia.

They are not to be taken with alcohol and they should not be discontinued abruptly.
What is cephalosporin? How many generations do they come in? Which generation is most effective against gram-negative bacteria?
The cephalosporins are a class of β-lactam antibiotics.

Cephalosporins are grouped into "generations" by their antimicrobial properties.

Generation 4 are most effective against gram-negative bacteria.
Identify the following abbreviations:
1) MI
2) IM
3) aa
1) MI = Myocardial Infraction
2) IM = Intramuscular
3) aa = one of each
What are the 5 different sources of drugs?
1) plants
2) animals
3) minerals
4) synthetic
5) engineered
What is the purpose of the Pharmacy and Therapeutic Committee?
In the hospital pharmacy, the P&T committee determines which medications will be purchased and maintained in stock.
Which Schedule drug has the highest potential of abuse?
Schedule 1
What are nitrates used for? Give an example of a nitrate.
Nitrates are used to relax muscle tone. Nitroglycerin is a drug that relaxes the heart's muscle tone.
Which type of tablet is most suitable for children?
chewable tablets
What is Methotrexate? What is it used for?
Methotrexate is a folic acid antagonist that prevents cancer cell growth.

Methotrexate is classified as an antimetabolite drug, which means it is capable of blocking the metabolism of cells. As a result of this effect, it has been found helpful in treating certain diseases associated with abnormally rapid cell growth, such as cancer of the breast and psoriasis.
Who is regarded as the father of medicine?
What are Barbiturates? What are they used for?
Barbiturates are short acting drugs used as general anesthesia.

Officially, Barbiturates are a class of chemicals derived from barbituric acid or thiobarbituric acid. Many of these are medically important as sedatives and hypnotics (sedatives, barbiturate), as anaesthetics, or as anticonvulsants.
What is Isoniazid?
Isoniazid is a crystalline antibacterial compound, C6H7N3O, used in the treatment of tuberculosis.
Identify the following root words:
1) cardi
2) nephro
3) hema
1) cardi = heart
2) nephro = kidney
3) hema = blood
What are gamma rays used for in pharmaceutics?
Gamma rays are the most tissue penetrating energy packets and they are often used for sterilization of medical equipment.
Who promotes the certification of pharmacy technicians?
The American Association of Pharmacy Technicians
What are the consequences of not treating HTN?
Possibly a stroke and/or E.O.D.

E.O.D. = End Organ Damage (such as the eyes, legs and kidneys)
What drug is used to treat fungus in the mouth?
Fill in:

Drugs with high _____ _____ have a greater room for error.
Therapeutic index
What is Vancomycin used to treat against?
What are antibiotics?
Antibiotics are drugs that inhibit DNA/RNA synthesis
What are some examples of antibiotics?
1) Bieomycin
2) Doxorubicin
3) Dactinomycin
4) Mitomycin
5) Plicamycin
6) Vinblasine
What does TPN stand for?
Total Parental Nutrition
What are some common side effects associated with "Warfarin"?
Warfarin thins the blood, possibly causing patients to bleed to death.
What type of Schedule drug is Morphine?
Morphine is a Schedule 2 drug.
What does Hematuria mean?
Hematuria is the presence of blood in urine.
What are some common side effects of Erythromycin?
Nausea and vomitting
What are the duties and responsibilities of a pharmacy technician working in a hospital setting (inpatient)?
1) Maintenance of medication records.
2) Preparing unit doses.
3) Compounding medications.
4) Packaging.
5) Administration of medication.
6) Preparing and delivering prescriptions to patients who are out of the hospital, such as those in nursing homes, hospice, and rehabilitation facilities.
7) Computer data input.
8) Inspecting nursing unit drug stocks.
9) Inventory maintenance.
10) Preparation of labels.
11) Maintaining privacy.
12) Communication skills.
13) Working safely.
What is HiPAA and how does it affect the pharmacy practice?
The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) was enacted by the U.S. Congress in 1996.

Title I of HIPAA protects health insurance coverage for workers and their families when they change or lose their jobs.

Title II of HIPAA, the Administrative Simplification provisions, requires the establishment of national standards for electronic health care transactions and national identifiers for providers, health insurance plans, and employers.

The AS provisions also address the security and privacy of health data. The standards are meant to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the nation's health care system by encouraging the widespread use of electronic data interchange in the US health care system.

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