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1451-1500

Terms

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Vietnamization
The effort to build up South Vietnamese troops while withdrawing American troops, it was an attempt to turn the war over to the Vietnamese.
Bombing of Laos and Cambodia
March, 1969 - U.S. bombed North Vietnamese positions in Cambodia and Laos. Technically illegal because Cambodia and Laos were neutral, but done because North Vietnam was itself illegally moving its troops through those areas. Not learned of by the American public until July, 1973.
New Frontier
The "new" liberal and civil rights ideas advocated by Kennedy, in contrast to Eisenhower's conservative view.
Kent State Incident, Jackson State Incident
Kent State: May 4, 1970 - National Guardsmen opened fire on a group of students protesting the Vietnam War. Jackson State: Police opened fire in a dormitory.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
After the U.S. Navy ship Maddux reportedly was fired on, the U.S. Congress passed this resolution which gave the president power to send troops to Vietnam to protect against further North Vietnamese aggression.
Civil Rights Act of 1964, Public Accommodations Section of the Act
stated that public accommodations could not be segregated and that nobody could be denied access to public accommodation on the basis of race.
Demilitarized Zone (DMZ)
An area that both militaries are required to stay out of in order to create a buffer between nations. In Vietnam, a five mile wide area was established between the North and South along the 17th parallel.
Geneva Conference
French wanted out of Vietnam , the agreement signed by Ho Chi Minh France divided Vietnam on the 17th parallel, confining Minh's government to the North. In the South, an independent government was headed by Diem.
Bay of Pigs, 1961
A small army of ant-Castro Cuban exiles were trained and financed by the U.S. in the hope their invasion would lead to a popular uprising to overthrow the Communist government. The invasion force landed at the Bay of Pigs in Southern Cuba, but received no popular support and were quickly wiped out by Castro's forces.
"Flexible Response"
Kennedy abandoned Eisenhower's theory of massive nuclear war in favor of a military that could respond flexibly to any situation at any time, in different ways.
Tet Offensive
Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army raiding forces attacked provincial capitals throughout Vietnam, even seizing the U.S. embassy for a time. U.S. opinion began turning against the war.
Miranda Decision, Escobedo Decision
1964 - Miranda held that a person arrested for a crime must be advised of his right to remain silent and to have an attorney before being questioned by the police. Escobedo held that an accused can reassert these rights at any time, even if he had previously agreed to talk to the police.
Paris Accord, 1973
January 7, 1973 - U.S. signed a peace treaty with North Vietnam and began withdrawing troops. On April 25, 1975, South Vietnam was taken over by North Vietnam, in violation of the treaty.
Twenty Fourth Amendment
It outlawed taxing voters, i.e. poll taxes, at presidential or congressional elections, as an effort to remove barriers to Black voters.
Domino Theory
It stated that if one country fell to Communism, it would undermine another and that one would fall.
Berlin Wall
1961 - The Soviet Union, under Nikita Khrushev, erected a wall between East and West Berlin to keep people from fleeing from the East, after Kennedy asked for an increase in defense funds to counter Soviet aggression.
Civil Rights Act
Attempted to provide Blacks with equal-opportunity housing.

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