This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

American History Final


undefined, object
copy deck
Marcus Garvey
Many poor urban blacks turned to him. He was head of the Universal Negro Improvement Association and he urged black economic cooperation and founded a chain of UNIA grocery stores and other business
ralph nader
In 1971, he founded the non-governmental organization (NGO) Public Citizen as an umbrella organization for these projects. Today, Public Citizen has over 140,000 members and scores of researchers investigating Congressional, health, environmental, economic and other issues. Their work is credited with facilitating the passage of the Safe Drinking Water Act and Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), and prompting the creation of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC).
In 1950, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy began a sensational campaign against communists in government that led to more than four years of charges and countercharges, ending when the Senate censured him in 1954. McCarthyism became the contemporary name for the red scare of the 1950's.
article 231
Article 231 of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) is commonly known as the "Guilt Clause" or the "War Guilt Clause", in which Germany was forced to take complete responsibility for starting World War I. The United Kingdom and France played the primary role in the article, while the United States played a lesser role, mostly due to President Woodrow Wilson's principle of "peace without victory."
Yalta confrence
Roosevelt promises Stalin will have some power in Eastern Europe following the war, making sure Stalin will stay in the war
cuban missile crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
battle of the bulge
a month long battle of WWII in which the Allies turned back the last major German offensive of the war (occorred in the Ardennes Region in Luxemberg and Belgium
Al Capone
Gangster wanted by the government for the illegal sale of alcohol.
unrestricted submarine warfare
Sinking ships without warning. German's sunk the Bristish passenger ship Lusitania May 1915. 1200 killed included 130 Americans. Wilson demanded reparations and apology. Bryan instructed to send memo to Germany, hesitant, but did. Germans said Lusitania was armed (false) and carrying military cargo (true, British was using civilians to shield war cargo). Bryan refused to write 2nd note and resigned as Sec of State. Replaced by Robert Lansing who DID write 2nd note, and Germans pledged not to use USWarfare, civilians would be allowed to evacuate
affirmative action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
fannie lou hamer
founder of the interracial Mississippi freedom democratic party, ran for us congress freedom ballet, name her
berlin airlift
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Brown vs. board of education
Stated in 1954 that it was unconstitutional to maintain separate black and white schools (5 words),
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
Yalu River
a battle in the Korean War (November 1950)
James early ray
killer of Martin Luther King Jr.
Philip Randolph
an African American labor leader, helped atchive writes in 1941
Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General, ordered immigrants suspected of radical views to be rounded up and deported
Espionage and Sedition Acts
laws that enacted harsh punishments against anyone who opposed participation in the war
new frontier
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
policy of avoiding foreign involvement
Volstead Act
the means of enforcing Prohibition
good neighbor policy
FDR's foreign policy of promoting better relations w/Latin America by using economic influence rater than military force in the region
medical expense assitance provide by the state goverment to needy families
iron curtain
a political barrier that isolated the peoples of Eatern Europe after WWII, restricting their ability to travel outside the region
League of Nations
an international organization formed in 1920 to promote cooperation and peace among nations
Court packing
Roosevelt tried to put more justices in the Supreme Court so he could get more of his New Deals passed
huey long
As senator in 1932 of Washington preached his "Share Our Wealth" programs. It was a 100% tax on all annual incomes over $1 million and appropriation of all fortunes in excess of $5 million. With this money Long proposed to give every American family a comfortable income, etc
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; an alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries
peace corps
volunteers who help third world nations and prevent the spread of communism by getting rid of poverty
Douglas Macarthur
United States general who served as chief of staff and commanded Allied forces in the South Pacific during World War II
Albert Fall
Secretary of Interior under Harding responsible for Teapot Dome scandal
Dust Bowl
a serious drought in the 1930's in the great plains and all of the soil was blown away
accused of being communists- electric chair.
civil rights act of 1968
ended discrimination in housing
Quota System
established the maximum number of immigrants from any given country
Zora neale hurston
African American writer and folklore scholar who played a key role in the Harlem Renaissance
voting rights act of 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Hawley Smoot Tariff
raised tariffs to the highest rate ever.
Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee, college kids participate in Civil Rights, stage sit-ins and such
Charles Lindbergh
United States aviator who in 1927 made the first solo nonstop flight across the Atlantic Ocean (1902-1974)
the new deal
title that FDR gave to a sequence of programs and promises he made with the goal of giving humanitarain aid relieft to the needy, reform of the finacial system, and recovery of the economy of the United States during the Great Depression
Selective Service Act
This 1917 law provided for the registration of all American men between the ages of 21 and 30 for a military draft. By the end of WWI, 24.2 had registered; 2.8 had been inducted into the army. Age limit was later changed to 18 to 45.
Sussex Pledge
Agreement in which Germany ceases submarine warfare if British stop mining North Sea
Four Causes of World War One
nationalism, imperialism, militarism, and formation of alliances
The House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC) was an investigating committee which investigated what it considered un-American propaganda,
thurgood marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
francis townsend
American physician and social reformer whose plan for a government-sponsored old-age pension was a precursor of the Social Security Act of 1935.
Kellogg Briand Pact
renounced war as an instrument of national policy
migrants from Oklahoma to California during the dust bowl
Black tuesday
Oct 29 stocks went down as far as it could go and stocks lost $10-15 billion in value
battle of stalingrad
World War II battle in 1942 and 1943 for control of the Russian . In 1942 the German troops had reached the outskirts of the city and met fierce resistance. They were forced to surrender along with 90,000 troops. The Axis forces lost more then 800,000 but they Russians lost more than 1,000,000 in trying to defend their city
the belief that national interest and national unity should be placed ahead of global cooperation and that foreign affairs should be guided by self interest
jonas salk
United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914)
George patton
Known as "Old Blood and Guts," George S. Patton, Jr. was one of the most colorful generals of World War II. During World War II he served in North Africa and Sicily before becoming the commander of the Third Army.
charles coughlin
In 1930 he began radio broadcasts of his sermons, into which he gradually injected reactionary political statements and anti-Semitic rhetoric.
Treaty of Versailles
Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.
atlantic charter
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
The Red Scare
The fear in the United States that a communist revolution could take place in America
Agricultural Adjustment Administration: attempted to regulate agricultural production through farm subsidies; reworked after the Supreme Court ruled its key provisions unconstitutional in 1936; coordinated agricultrual production during WWII, after which it was disbanded
American-born children of Japanese immigrants; second generation Japanese Americans.
Satisfying the demands of dissatisfied powers in an effort to maintain peace and stability.
civil rights act of 1964
1964; banned discrimination in public acomodations, prohibited discrimination in any federally assisted program, outlawed discrimination in most employment; enlarged federal powers to protect voting rights and to speed school desegregation; this and the voting rights act helped to give African-Americans equality on paper, and more federally-protected power so that social equality was a more realistic goal
Thomas Dewey
He was the Governor of New York (1943-1955) and the unsuccessful Republican candidate for the U.S. Presidency in 1944 and 1948. As a leader of the liberal faction of the Republican party he fought the conservative faction led by Senator Robert A. Taft, and played a major role in nominating Dwight D. Eisenhower for the presidency in 1952.
cash and carry
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
marshall plan
A plan that the US came up with to revive war-torn economies of Europe. This plan offered $13 billion in aid to western and Southern Europe.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
great society
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
Jack Kerouac
United States writer who was a leading figure of the beat generation (1922-1969)
Baby Boom
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
nation of islam
a group of militant Black Americans who profess Islamic religiou`s beliefs and advocate independence for Black Americans
code talkers
Navajo radio operators who helped secure communications in the Pacific
alger hiss
state department offical. was accused of giving secret government documents to the Soviets
bull conner
police chief in Birmingham, sent out police dogs and water hoses on protesting blacks
Termination policy
1953 gov eliminated economic support for native americans, stopped reservation system, redistributed tribal support
lend lease
A program under which the United States supplied U.K, USSR, China, France, and other allied nations with vast amounts of war meterial between 1941 and 1945 in return for, in the case of Britain, Military bases in New Foundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. It began in March 1941, nine months before the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. It was abruptly stopped by the Americans immediately after V-J day.
Zimmerman Note
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
benjamin spock
United States pediatrician whose many books on child care influenced the upbringing of children around the world (1903-1998)
Harlem Renassance
New York City. Birthplace of Af. Am. culture. Many artists, writers, & intellectucuals moved to Harlem, many achieved greatly.
hollywood ten
went to jail for refusiing to answer questions about their political beliefs or those of their colleagues
Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: A federal guarantee of savings bank deposits initially of up to $2500, raised to $5000 in 1934, and frequently thereafter; continues today with a limit of $100,000
jesse jackson
United States civil rights leader who led a national anti-discrimination campaign and ran for presidential nomination (born in 1941)
Langston Hughes
Harlems best known writer
freedom summer
young northern students try to get blacks registered to vote, meet with resistance
truman doctrine
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
Washington Naval Conference
1921 - president harding invited delegates from Europe and Japan, and they agreed to limit production of war ships, to not attack each other's possessions, and to respect China's independence
1933 National Industrial Recovery Act. Recovery. Created NRA to enforce codes of fair competition, minimum wages, and to permit collective bargaining of workers.
Fourteen Points
created by Wilson. idealistic Blueprint for permanent peace. January 8, 1918. Based on Wilson's understanding of wwi's causes and how future wars could be avoided. Points included open covenants, openly arrived at instead of secret treaties. Freedom of the seas, freedom of trade. Impartial settlement of colonial rivalries. Nonintervention in Russia. Return of full sovereignty to Belgium. Alsace-Lorraine to France. Autonomy(not necessarily independence) for national groups within A-H Empire. Independence of Romania, Serbia, Montenegro, and Poland. Establishment of an organization or association to settle other national conflicts as they arose. Mainly dealt with the cause of the war that was people wanting natural national boundaries.
Henry cabot lodge
conservative senator who wanted to keep the United States out of the League of Nations
nuremberg trials
Trials of the Nazi leaders, showed that people are responsible for their actions, even in wartime
The checkers speech
given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. The speech was broadcast nationwide from the El Capitan Theatre in Hollywood,[1] was one of the first political uses of television to appeal directly to the populace.( nixon asked for ppls forgiveness, bought his daughter checkers)
Bernard Baruch
He headed the War Industries Board which placed the control of industries into the hands of the federal government. It was a prime example of War Socialism.
Triple Entente (allies)
france, great britain, russia
a return to "normal" life after the war.
Sinclair Lewis
United States novelist who satirized middle-class America in his novel Main Street (1885-1951)
central powers
in World War I the alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations allied with them in opposing the Allies
earl warren
United States jurist who served as chief justice of the United States Supreme Court (1891-1974)
berlin wall
a wall separating East and West Berlin built by East Germany in 1961 to keep citizens from escaping to the West
Feminine Mystique
The book by Betty Friedan that encourage equal rights among women.
The Great Migration
The migration of thousands of African-Americans from the South to the North. African Americans were looking to escape the problems of racism in the South and felt they could seek out better jobs and an overall better life in the North.
black panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
the development of armed forces and their use as a tool of diplomacy
george wallace
racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot
rugged individualism
the willingness of individuals to stand along and struggle long and hard to survive and prosper
triple alliance
germany, austria-hungary, and italy
battle of britain
German air forces invaded Britain but the British Royal Air Force drove them out with the help of the new invention radar that let them know where the German planes were
John L. Lewis
United Mine Workers, created congress of Industrial Organization [ CIO ] - helped create industrial unions
orval faubus
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School, He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School
health care for the aged
Claude Mckay
writer of poetry and fiction
Food Administration
This government agency was headed by Herbert Hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
index of stock prices of select companies
limited test ban treaty
prohibits nuclear weapons tests "or any other nuclear explosion" in the atmosphere, in outer space, and under water
Teapot Dome Scandal
Harding's Secertary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, secretly allowed private interest to lease lands containing U.S. Navy oil reserves at Teapot Dome, Wyoming, and Elk Hills, California
communities of homeless people who live on the outskirts of towns.
Office of Price Administration--set price controls to help check inflation
George Gershwin
United States composer who incorporated jazz into classical forms and composed scores for musical comedies (1898-1937)
Urban Sprawl
the growth of low density development outward from the edges of a city
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
young heir whose assassination triggered the war
Works Progress Administration (1935)- Relief- Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during World War II.
Alfred Smith
He ran for president in the 1928 election for the Democrat Party. He was known for his drinking and he lost the election to Herbert Hoover. Prohibition was one of the issues of the campaign. He was the first Roman Catholic to run for president, and it was during a time many people were prejudice toward Catholics
medgar evers
United States civil rights worker in Mississippi
Manhattan Project
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
interstate highway system
In some ways Eisenhower even did the New Deal one better. In a public works project that dwarfed anything the New Dealers had ever dreamed of, Ike backed the interstate highway act of 1956, a $27 billion plan to build forty-two thousand miles of sleek, fast motorways. laying down these modern, mutilane roads created countless construction jobs and speeded the suburbanization of america. the highway act offered juicy benefits to the trucking, automobile, oil, and travel induestries, while at the same time robbing the railroads, especially passenger trains, of business. the act also exacerbated problems of air quality and energy consumption, and had especially disastrous consequences for cities, whose once-vibrant downtowns withered away while shopping malls flourished in the far-flung suburbs.
Congress of Racial of Equality, a group that planned the Freedom Rides to desegregate interstate buses
eleanor roosevelt
wife of Franklin Roosevelt and a strong advocate of human rights (1884-1962)
Scopes Trial
Substitute Teacher Scopes mentioned evolution in class, WJ Bryan prosecuted him, Clarence Darrow defended him. Happened in Dayton, TN Bryan admitted on the stand that bible needed interpretation, not taken literally. "Boosterism" city leaders publicity stunts to get attention
Ernest Hemingway
an American writer of fiction who won the Nobel Prize for literature in 1954 (1899-1961)
stokely carmichael
head of the SNCC making a separatist philosophy of black power as the official objective of the organization
a form of government in which the ruler is an absolute dictator (not restricted by a constitution or laws or opposition etc.)
(Home Owners' Loan Corporation) Relief and Recovery. Helped home-owners and mortgage companies. government payed companies for the home-owners so they could keep their homes and pay off w/ lower interest and longer time.
the bonus army
WWI veterans who wanted their bonuses for fighting in the war
james meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
dean rusk
The American Secretary of State during the Vietnam War
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
kerner commission
federal commision that investigated the 1960's riots and blamed them on whit racism
alan freed
A downtown cleveland Ohio radio disk jockey, won permission to play African American rythym and blues records on air
bay of pigs invasion
Failed CIA plan to overthrow Castro in April of 1961.
21st ammendment
Repeal of the 18th Ammendment (prohibition)
Sacco and Vanzetti
In 1920 these two men were convicted of murder and robbery. They were found guilty and died in the electric chair unfairly
invasion of italy
Allied Powers decided to invade the island of Sicily to gain access to the Italian mainland. Used the strategy of "island hopping"
Place in North Korea where General MacArthur landed and suprised the enemy.
American boat that was sunk by the German U-boats; made America consider entering WWI
Freedom riders
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
U-2 Incident
The incident when an American U-2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. The U.S. denied the true purpose of the plane at first, but was forced to when the U.S.S.R. produced the living pilot and the largely intact plane to validate their claim of being spied on aerially. The incident worsened East-West relations during the Cold War and was a great embarrassment for the United States.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
Buying on Margin
Purching stock with a little money down with the promise of paying the balance at sometime in the future

Deck Info