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20th centurty II

Terms

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Beat movement
group of American writers who came to prominence in the late 1950s and early 1960s cultural phenomena
Sit ins
to protest at lunch counters that served only whites, African Americans students began staging this
hippies
a youth subculture (mostly from the middle class) originating in San Francisco in the 1960s
Voting Rights Act of 1964
Civil Rights law that banned literacy tests and other practices that discouraged blacks from voting.
Ho Chi Minh
Vietnamese communist statesman who fought the Japanese in World War II and the French until 1954 and South vietnam until 1975 (1890-1969)
Vietcong
the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
Orval Faubus
He is best known for his 1957 stand against the desegregation of Little Rock public schools during the Little Rock Crisis, in which he defied the United States Supreme Court by ordering the Arkansas National Guard to stop African American students from attending Little Rock Central High School
War Powers Act
After the attack on Pearl Harbor, Congress passed it, granting the President unprecedented authority
Social Conformity
conforming to the social norm like in ways homes were built
Cesar Chavez
United States labor leader who organized farm workers (born 1927)
Fall of Saigon
late in April 1975, communist forces marched into Saigon, shortly after officials of the Thieu regime and the staff of the American embassy had fled the country in humiliating disarray. The forces quickly occupied the capital, renamed it Ho Chi Minh City and began he process of uniting Vietnam under Hanoi.
Kerner Commission
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
Roe v Wade
'73 Supreme ct decision that stuck down 46 state laws restricting women's access to abortion (highlighted divisions within women's mvmt
motown
the largest city in Michigan and a major Great Lakes port
Ed Sullivan
United States host on a well known television variety show (1902-1974)
Planned obsolescence
Designed to last for a limited period of time; not durable.
My Lai Massacre
In 1968 American troops massacred women and children in the Vietnamese village of My Lai; this deepened American people's disgust for the Vietnam War.
Easy rider
1969 road movie two bikers travel the south
Tet Offensive
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
Watts Riots
riot which lasted six days in the Watts neighborhood of Los Angeles, California
Geneva Accords
is an extra-governmental and therefore unofficial peace proposal meant to solve the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. It would give Palestinians almost all of the West Bank and Gaza Strip and part of Jerusalem, drawing Israel's borders close to what existed before the 1967 war.
Baby Boom
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
New Left
a youth-dominated political movement of the 1960s, embodied in such organization as Students for a Democratic Society and the Ree Speech Movement.
federal communications commission
an independent governmeent agency that regulates interstate and international communications by radio and television and wire and cable and satellite
the beatles
A British band that came over to America in 1961
Consumer Culture
A culture that is permeated by consumerism
Agent Orange
a herbicide used in the Vietnam War to defoliate forest areas
allen ginsburg
American poet poem Howl
NAACP
worked to gain equal rights for African Americans
Stokeley Carmichael
He was a black activist as member of CORE. As the movement progressed, he started to become more militant creating the cry of black power.
Vietminh
Vietnamese Communist groups that banded together to form a slarger and stronger party
Brown v. Board of education
This case tested the idea of "separate but equal" in education
Free Speech Movement
led by Mario Savio it protested on behalf of students rights. It spread to colleges throughought the country discussing unpopular faculty tenure decisions, dress codes, dormitory regulations, and appearances by Johnson administration officials.
Busing
achieving racial balance by transporting students to schools across neighborhood boundaries
Vietnam Memorial
war memorial located in Washington, D.C., that honors members of the U.S. armed forces who fought in the Vietnam War
La Raza Unida
a new political party in texas, it mobilized mexican american voters to push for job training programs and greater access to financial institutuions
De Jure
by right by law
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
Suburbs
residential neighborhoods
Martin Luther King Jr.
U.S. Baptist minister and civil rights leader. A noted orator, he opposed discrimination against blacks by organizing nonviolent resistance and peaceful mass demonstrations. He was assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee. Nobel Peace Prize (1964)
White flight
working and middle-class white people move away from racial-minority suburbs or inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs
National Organization for Women
Founded in 1966, the National Organization for Women (NOW) called for equal employment opportunity and equal pay for women. NOW also championed the legalization of abortion and passage of an equal rights amendment to the Constitution.
james dean
United States film actor whose moody rebellious roles made him a cult figure (1931-1955)
jimi hendrix
United States guitarist whose innovative style with electric guitars influenced the development of rock music (1942-1970)
Robert McNamara
The US Secretary of Defense during the battles in Vietnam. He was the architech for the Vietnam war and promptly resigned after the US lost badly
Ngo Dinh Diem
Vietnamese leader gained controll of S. Vietnam- refused to hold elections to keep from communism
Black Power
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
Betty Friedan
United States feminist who founded a national organization for women (born in 1921)
marilyn monroe
United States film actress noted for sex appeal (1926-1962)
Phyllis Schlafly
1970s; a new right activist that protested the women's rights acts and movements as defying tradition and natural gender division of labor; demonstrated conservative backlash against the 60s
Montgomery Bus Boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Dean Rusk
American Secretary of State from 1961-1969. Rusk was very militant, advocating military force in combating communism.
Civil Rights Act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full votin rights.
Thurgood Marshall
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
bob dylan
United States songwriter noted for his protest songs (born in 1941)
Credibility Gap
The gap between the Johnson Administration and the American public support, A lack of popular confidence in the truth of the claims or public statements made by the federal government, large corporations, politicians, etc.
chuck berry
United States rock singer (born in 1931)
Silent Majority
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
William Westmoreland
american general; was commander of us ground troops in south vietnam during vietnam war
Little Rock 9
incident in which troops (sent by president Eisenhower) helped integrate a high school by allowing nine black students to enter school peacefully and not be prevented by angry mobs.
Title IX
The law requriers equal education opporitunities for females and males, including coeducational physical education classes is...
rock N roll
Music that was blamed for teenage delinquency
Freedom Rides
Freedom Riders rode in interstate buses into the segregated southern United States to test the ruling of unsegregated public places
jack Kerouac
United States writer who was a leading figure of the beat generation (1922-1969)
Vietnamization
during the Vietnam War to reduce United States troop strength in Vietnam and train the South Vietnamese to take over the fighting themselves
Black Panthers
a militant Black political party founded in 1965 to end political dominance by Whites
Rolling thunder
Begins Feb.1965;Vietnam, Aerial Bombardment
andy warhol
United States artist who was a leader of the pop art movement (1930-1987)
Freedom Summer
voting rights for african americans carried out by white college students. some were violently beaten/ one man killed.
woodstock
3 day rock concert in upstate N.Y. August 1969
Civil Rights Act (1964)
LBJ barred discrimination in public places, outlawed discrimination for employment, protection for voting rights
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
elvis presley
United States rock singer whose many hit records and flamboyant style greatly influenced American popular music (1935-1977)
Pentagon Papers
President tried to prevent the Times from publishing articles about his conduct of the Vietnam War. Congress ruled the President would be in violation of the 1st Amendment
MLK Assassination
assassinated in Memphis, Tennessee in 1968 sparked riots
Affirmative Action
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
The graduate
movie
American Indian Movement
an Indian activist organization in the United States. AIM burst onto the international scene with its seizure of the Bureau of Indian Affairs headquarters in Washington, D.C., in 1972 and the 1973 standoff at Wounded Knee, South Dakota, on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation. In the decades since AIM's founding, the group has led protests advocating Indigenous American interests, inspired cultural renewal, monitored police activities and coordinated employment programs in cities and in rural reservation communities across the United States.
Franchise
a statutory right or privilege granted to a person or group by a government (especially the rights of citizenship and the right to vote)
Segregation
a social system that provides separate facilities for minority groups
mass media
two or more methods of communication used to reach the masses simultaneously.
Rosa Parks
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
Napalm
gasoline jelled with aluminum soaps
SCLC
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
urban renewal
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
ARVN
Army of the Republic of South Vietnam
Tonkin Gulf Resolution
two Am. ships had been attacked and this resolution ordered that the president take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the US to prevent further aggression
Kent State Incident
shooting of students(protesting invasion of cambodia) by members of the Ohio National Guard
Sesame street
educated children November 10, 1969,
Malcom X
spread ideas of black nationalism. disagreed w/ both the tactics and goals of the early civil rights movement. minister of the nation of isam. rejected his original name because it was his family's slave name
Domino Theory
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
James Meredith
United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi (born in 1933)
Rebel without a cause
story of a rebellious teenager expose the rift between two generations
counterculture
a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture

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