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Key Terms and Ideas for CH. 28


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The rivalry between the two superpowers stemmed from their intense competition for ___ and ___ supremacy.
political ; military
The Soviet Union was not prepared to give up the advantages it had gained in ___ from Germany’s defeat. But neither were American leaders willing to give up the ___ and ___ the United States had gained throughout the world.
Eastern Europe ; power ; prestige
The Red Army proceeded to install pro-Soviet governing regimes in ___, ___, ___, and ___. They were ___ ___ against the West.
Poland ; Romania ; Bulgaria ; Hungary ; buffer zones
Harry S. Truman wrote the ___ ___ which was a response to Great Britain's withdrawal from the active role they had been playing in both ___ and ___.
Truman Doctrine ; Greece ; Turkey
In the Truman Doctrine, Truman requested ___ in ___ and ___ aid for ___ and ___.
$400 million ; economic ; military ; Greece ; Turkey
The proclamation of the Truman Doctrine was soon followed in June 1947 by the ___ ___ ___, better known as the ___ ___.
European Recovery Program ; Marshall Plan
The ___ ___ included $13 billion for the ___ ___ of war-torn Europe (the underlying belief was that ___ ___ fed off economic turmoil).
Marshall Plan ; economic recovery ; Communist aggression
___ ___ ___ had noted in his commencement speech at Harvard: "Our policy is not directed against any ___ or ___ but against hunger, poverty, desperation, and chaos."
General George Marshall ; country ; doctrine
In an important article in ___ ___ in July 1947, ___ ___, a well-known American diplomat with much knowledge of Soviet affairs, advocated a policy of ___ against further aggressive Soviet moves.
"Foreign Affairs" ; George Kennan ; containment
After the Soviet ___ ___ ___ in 1948, containment of the Soviet Union became formal American policy.
blockade of Berlin
Besides ___ and the ___ of Germany into four occupied zones, the Allied powers had agreed on little else with regard to the conquered nation.
denazification ; partitioning
The ___, hardest hit by the war, took ___ from Germany in the form of ___.
Soviets ; reparations ; booty
The technology-starved ___ dismantled and removed to the Soviet Union 380 ___ from the western zones of ___ before transferring their control to the ___ ___.
Soviets ; factories ; Berlin ; Western powers.
The German Communist Party was reestablished under the control of ___ ___ and was soon in charge of the ___ ___ of the Soviet zone in eastern Germany.
Walter Ulbricht ; political reconstruction
The ___, ___, and ___ gradually began to merge their zones economically and, by February 1948, were making plans for the unification of these three Western sections of ___ and the formal creation of a ___ ___ ___ ___.
British ; French ; Americans ; Germany ; West German federal government
The Soviets responded with a ___ of ___ ___ that allowed neither trucks nor trains to enter the three Western zones of ___.
blockade ; West Berlin ; Berlin
The Soviets hoped to secure ___ ___ of all Berlin and force the ___ ___ to halt the creation of a separate ___ ___ ___.
economic control ; Western powers ; West German state
The Western powers responded to the blockade with the ___ ___ ___. At its peak, ___ tons of ___ were flown to Berlin daily. The ___ did not want war, either, and they finally ___ the ___ by May 1949.
Berlin Air Lift ; 13, 000 ; supplies ; Soviets ; lifted ; blockade
The blockade of Berlin had severely increased tensions between the ___ ___ and the ___ ___ and brought the ___ of Germany into ___ ___.
United States ; Soviet Union ; separation ; two states
The ___ ___ ___ ___ was formally created in Sept. 1949, and a month later, a separate ___ ___ ___ was established in East Germany.
West German Federal Republic ; German Democratic Republic
The victory of the ___ ___ in 1949 in the ___ ___ ___ created a new Communist regime and only intensified American fears about the spread of communism.
Chinese Communists ; Chinese civil war
The Soviet Union also detonated its first ___ ___ in 1949, and soon, the powers were constructing ever more destructive ___ ___.
atom bomb ; nuclear weapons
The ___ ___ ___ ___ was formed in April 1949 when Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway and Portugal signed a treaty with the ___ ___ and ___.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization ; United States ; Canada
All the powers in ___ agreed to provide ___ ___ if any one of them was attacked. A few years later West Germany, Greece, and Turkey joined ___.
NATO ; mutual assistance ; NATO
The Eastern European states soon followed suit. In 1949, they had already formed the ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ for economic cooperation.
Council for Mutual Economic Assistance
In 1955, Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and the Soviet Union organized a formal ___ ___ in the ___ ___.
military alliance ; Warsaw Pact
In the mid-1950's, the administration of ___ ___ ___ adopted a policy of ___ ___, which advocated the full use of American nuclear bombs to counteract even a Soviet ground attack in Europe.
President Dwight Eisenhower ; massive retaliation
The ___ ___ ___ of Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Britain, and the United States was intended to prevent the Soviet Union from ___ at the expense of its ___ ___.
Central Treaty Organization ; expansion ; southern neighbors
To stem ___ ___ in the East, the United States, Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand formed the ___ ___ ___ ___.
Soviet aggression ; Southeast Asia Treaty Organization
In August 1957, the Soviet Union had launched ___, the first space satellite.
"Sputnik I"
___ ___, the new leader of the Soviet Union, attempted to take advantage of the American frenzy over ___ to solve the problem of ___ ___.
Nikita Krushchev ; missiles ; West Berlin
In 1961, the ___ ___ ___ built a wall separating ___ ___ from ___ ___, and the Berlin issue faded.
East German government ; East Berlin ; West Berlin
It was revived when ___ ___ became the American president. ___ offered him another ___, but he eventually had to back down.
John F. Kennedy ; Krushchev ; ultimatum
The Cold War confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union reached frightening levels during the ___ ___ ___.
Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1959, ___ ___ had overthrown the Cuban dictator Fulgencio Batista and established a Soviet-supported ___ ___.
Fidel Castro ; totalitarian regime
In 1962, the Soviet Union decided to place ___ ___ in ___.
nuclear missiles ; Cuba
When American intelligence discovered that a Soviet fleet carrying missiles was heading to Cuba, ___ ___ decided to ___ Cuba and prevent the fleet from reaching its destination.
President Kennedy ; blockade
___ agreed to turn back the fleet if ___ pledged not to ___ Cuba.
Krushchev ; Kennedy ; invade
The ___ ___ ___ brought the world frighteningly close to ___ ___.
Cuban Missile Crisis ; nuclear war
By that time, the ___ ___ had also been drawn into a new confrontation that had an important impact on the ___ ___: the ___ ___.
United States ; Cold War ; Vietnam War
Between 1947 and 1962, virtually every ___ achieved ___ and attained statehood.
colony ; independence
In Asia, the United States initiated the process of ___ in 1946 when it granted independence to the ___. Britain soon followed suit with its oldest and largest nonwhite possession: ___.
decolonization ; Philippines ; India
The conflict between India's Hindu and Muslim population was solved by forming two states: a mostly ___ ___ and a predominantly ___ ___ in 1947.
Hindu India ; Muslim Pakistan
In the midst of ___ of Asia, the ___ ___ under Chiang Kai-Shek and the ___ under Mao Zedong were fighting a bloody ___ ___. ___ victory led to the creation of a powerful ___ state in Asia.
decolonization ; Nationalist Chinese ; Communists ; civil war ; Mao's ; Communist
In the Middle East and North Africa, ___ ___ was a powerful factor in ending colonial empires.
Arab nationalism
A group of Algerian nationalists organized the ___ ___ ___ and in 1954 initiated a ___ ___ to liberate their homeland from France.
National Liberation Front ; guerilla war
The French people became so divided over this war that the French leader, ___ ___ ___, accepted the inevitable and granted ___ ___ in 1962
Charles de Gaulle ; Algerian independence
To create a new industrial base, Stalin returned to the method that he had used in the 1930's: the acquisition of development capital from ___ ___.
Soviet labor
Almost ___ percent of heavy manual labor was performed by ___.
forty ; women
By 1947, Russian ___ production had attained prewar levels; three years later, it had surpassed them by ___ percent.
industrial ; forty
___'s newly announced ___-___ ___ of 1946 reached its goals in less than five years.
Stalin ; five year plan
To sustain the war effort against the ___, Stalin had fostered ___ among all Soviets.
Germans ; superpatriotism
Returning Soviet soldiers brought back stories of the prosperity of the ___, and the obvious ___ between the Western and Soviet systems led to a "___ ___ ___" for many young Communists.
West ; disparity ; crisis of faith
Partly for this reason, Stalin ___ many soldiers, who were simply shipped from German concentration camps to Soviet concentration camps.
Stalin's morbid ___ fueled the constantly increasing repression that was a characteristic of his regime.
In 1946, the government decreed that all ___ and ___ works must conform to the political needs of the state.
literary ; scientific
Along with this anti-intellectual campaign came ___ ___.
political terror
A new series of ___ seemed imminent in 1953 when a number of Jewish ___ were implicated in a spurious plot to kill high-level party officials.
purges ; doctors
Only ___'s death on March 5, 1953, prevented more bloodletting.
___ had been responsible for ending the system of forced-labor camps, a regular feature of ___ life under ___.
Krushchev ; Soviet ; Stalin
At the ___ ___ of the ___ ___ in 1956, Krushchev condemned ___ for his "administrative, mass repression, and terror."
Twentieth Congress Communist Party ; Stalin
Krushchev allowed a certain degree of ___ ___.
intellectual freedom
In 1962, Krushchev allowed the publication of Alexander Solzhenitsyn's ___, a grim portrayal of the horrors of the forced-labor camps.
"A Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich"
Krushchev extended the process of ___ by reducing the powers of the ___ ___.
destalinization ; secret police
Economically, Krushchev tried to place more emphasis on ___ ___ and ___ ___.
light industry ; consumer goods
Also, Krushchev encouraged the ___ of agriculture.
Krushchev's attempts to increase ___ output by growing corn and cultivating vast lands proved less successful and damaged his ___.
agricultural ; reputation
___ ___ failures caused additional damage to Krushchev's reputation among his colleagues.
Foreign policy
Krushchev's rash plan to place ___ in ___ was the final straw.
missiles ; Cuba
Although a group of leaders succeeded Krushchev, real power came into the hands of ___ ___.
Leonid Brezhnev
In Czechoslovakia, which had a strong tradition of ___ institutions, the Communists did not achieve their goals until 1948. In the elections of 1946, the ___ ___ of ___ had become the largest party, but it was not all-powerful.
democratic ; Communist Party Czechoslovakia
The ___ seized control of the Czech government, and ___ ___, the leader of the ___, became the new president of Czechoslovakia.
Communists ; Klement Gottwald ; Communists
In Yugoslavia, Josip Broz, known as ___, leader of the Communist resistance movement, seemed to be a loyal ___.
Tito ; Stalinist
Tito was not a proponent of ___, but was a proponent of ___.
Stalinism ; Communism
Tito instituted Soviet-type ___-___ ___ with emphasis on ___ ___ rather than consumer goods.
five year plans ; heavy industry
Tito began to ___ agriculture.
Tito eliminated all non-Communist parties and established the institutes of ___: secret police and military forces.
Poland adopted a series of reforms in October 1956 and elected ___ ___ as first secretary. He declared that Poland had the right to follow its own ___ path.
Wladyslaw Gomulka ; socialist
Poland pledged to remain loyal to the ___ ___, and the Soviets agreed to allow Poland to follow its own path to ___.
Warsaw Pact ; socialism
___ ___, the new Hungarian leader, promised ___ ___, and the mood of the country made it clear that this could mean the end of Communist rule in Hungary.
Imry Nagy ; free elections
Just three days after Nagy's declaration, the ___ ___ attacked the capital city of Budapest.
Red Army
The Soviets reestablished control over the country, and ___ ___, a reform-minded cabinet minister, replaced nagy and worked with the Soviets to squash the revolt.
Janos Kadar
___ ___ was elected first secretary of the Communiist Party and soon introduced a series of reforms to create "communism ___ ___ ___ ___."
Alexander Dubcek ; with a human face
A period of euphoria erupted that came to be known as the ___ ___.
Prague Spring
The new ___ ___ were sincerely interested in democracy and in significant economic reforms. They played an important role in achieving Europe's economic restoration.
Christian Democrats

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