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Potter's box
Definition, values, principles, loyalties, action
Basic ethical guidelines
Seek and report truth
Minimize harm
Act independently
Be accountable
Typical internal policies
Don't accept free tickets
Don't accept gifts more than token value
Don't participate in politics
Don't do outside PR work
Don't conduct interviews w/o proper advance disclosure
Don't publish photos of deceased
Tendency for media reporters to become aligned over time w/ attitudes, opinions, and even practices of those they cover extensively--not necessarily bad unless it affects their news reporting
1700s newspaper
"Revolutionary Press"
Peter Zenger defied Brits
Declaration of Independence published in Penn. Evening Post
Into 1830s
"Political Press"
By 1800 most cities had daily paper
In late 1820s first minority papers show up
Mass audience fostered by
steam press
public schools in 1830s
Penny Presses
1833 New York Sun first penny paper
Featured human interest, avoided politics
Revolutionized economic basis, distribution
Modern Era
Individual owners emerged 1880s-1900
Introduction of "objectivity," mass appeal
Unstable telegraphy=inverted pyramid
Yellow Journalism
"smarmy investigations"
Headlines, modern-type layouts
Early 20th century
Consolidation, less competition
Tabloid papers (NY Daily News)
Great Depression
Paper income dropped 20%
66 papers died
Advertising competition from radio
More consolidation
More ad competition
Color, graphics, short stories, classified ads
Newspaper industry today
Less cities w/ competing papers
Conglomeration: Large owners buying more and more papers
Newspaper ownership
USA Today
Philidelphia Inquirer
Advance Publications
Cleveland Plain-Dealer
New York Times Co.
New York Times
Tribune Co.
Chicago Tribune
Attributes that contribute to increase in readership
Household income
Daily circulation of newspaper
54 Million
Sunday circulation of newspaper
58 million
Top circulation paper
USA Today
Had first idea for magazine
Benjamin Franklin
Beat first thinker in getting out magazine
Andrew Bradford
Brought bulk mail, helped magazine industry
Postal Act of 1870
First continuing human interest magazine and first to use national advertising
Ladies' Home Journal
Magazines from WWI to WWII
Reader's Digest, Time (news compartmentalized), Life and Look (pictoral magazines)
Magazines post WWII
Movement back to specialty magazines
Modern Magazine
Industry highly volatile
Declining ad revenues=forced closures
Legal and marketing pressures
700 mags start each year; 60% fail
Online mags (like Slate) now exist
AM Radio
Amplitude Modulation
-Lengthy signal
-Clear regional, local channels
-Stations declined since '75
FM Radio
Frequency modulation
-Short range signal
-Better quality sound
-Less outside interference
Average household has ___ radio receivers
Invented wireless morse code
Guglielmo Marconi
Invented high speed generator to broadcast voice signals
Reginald Fessenden
Invented vacuum tube for radio reception
Lee De Forest
Communications Act of ____
Formed FCC
Telelcommunications Act of ___
Opened marketplace to consolidation
The tendency of the human perceptual system to perceive continuous motion between two stationary points of light that blink on and off
Phi phenomenon
The quality of the human eye that enables it to retain an image for a split second
Persistence of vision
Huge conglomerate owners
NBC Universal
MGM/United Artists
Time Warner
News Corporation
Factors hurting attendence
Social theater environment eroding
Sacrificing relationships w/ theater-goers for short-term profits (commercials, no ushers)
Ready alternatives offer better experiences
Rising prices
Demographics (baby boomers go to movies less often)
Declining quality of movies
How many U.S. TV markets?
Percent of U.S. homes w/ TVs
Diagrammed idea for TV in high school
Philo T. Farnsworth
Invented primative camera tube in 1928
Vladimir Zworykin
Year of BBC's first broadcast
Golden days of TV
These programs, and genres, fueled TV sales
Ed Sullivan, live TV, Western dramas
Golden days of TV News
1960s (newscasts lengthened for Kennedy funeral, civil rights events, Vietnam War, and landing on the moon)
1970s-2000 In TV
Growing concern over content
Competition for networks
Continued growth of cable
Growth of advertising revenue
Growth of VCRs: 5% in '82, 95% in 2000
Remote control
Direct satellite in '94
Analog TV
Scanned electron beam creates image in flourescent screen
Digital TV
Pixels assigned to digital code
-clearer picture
-higher quality sound
-wider screen
-screen can be subdivided
How we live our lives, what is right or wrong
Established principles which are enduring; typical in U.S. and Western world
Absolute Ethics
Situational ethics
Ethical views depend on the situation; typical of Japan and Asian societies
Tendency for reporters to become aligned over time with attitudes, opinions, and even practices of those they cover extensively
Basic ethical guidlines
Seek and report the truth
Minimize harm
Act independently
Be accountable
Affects reputation
Protection of privacy
Protects peace of mind
Fair comment
Fair critique of performance of a public official
Laws allowing press access to government info
-1996 Freedom of Information Act
-1996 Electronic Freedom of Information Act
-Sunshine Laws
Obscenity supposed to be determined according to _____
Community standards
Telecommunications Act of 1996
Essentially deregulated industry
8 steps in communication process
-process of encoding
-process of decoding
-potential for feedback
-possibility of noise
Interpersonal communication
face to face
Machine-assisted interpersonal communication
Machines assist in the communication between two people
Mass Communication
communication from one source to many audiences
channel by which the message is communicated
Traits of Media Entities
-large and formal organizations
-many gatekeepers
Motivations of media entities
"No one is in charge."
Thomas Friedman, about the internet
Three types of media convergence
elimination of "middle man"
Author of the book
Three views of mass comms.
-functional approach
-critical/cultural approach
-social approach
Functional approach
Examines how various individuals and audiences use the mass media--best understood by asking the question (of each consumer): "What's in this for me?"
Percent of waking hours spent using media of some kind
Keeping abreast of events and analyzing issues or information for your own development
Stimulation, relaxation, and release
Social Utility
"conversational currency"
disassociating from life, creating buffer between yourself and others
-warn us
-inform us
Notion of "status conferral"
belief that if you really matter you'll get media coverage, and if you really, really matter you'll get media attention
Interpretation role of media
-editorial opinion and commentary
-analysis w/in "factual content"
-subtle message slants...
-Percent of TV that's entertainment
-Percent of newspaper
Technological Determinisim
Belief that whatever happens in a society, technology alone makes it happen
Seven milestones in human communication
-printing press
-electromagnetic communications
-home entertainment
-digital era
A persisting oral culture today
"talk story" in Polynesian cultures
Sign writing
Originated in 3500 BC in Sumeria
Phonetic Writing
Social consequences of writing
-enduring body of knowledge
-Greek and Roman empires
-gap between the elite and the masses
Printing press
invented in 1453 by Johann Gutenberg
Consequences of printing press
-extension of books and knowledge to masses
invented early 1800s, transported info at 186,000 miles/second
invented in 1876 by Alexander Graham Bell, sent voice waves over telegraph wires
First box camera
produced by Kodak in 1890s
Early pictures
either posed or still
Half-tone process
helped put photos in papers and magazines in the early 1900s--ushered in era of photojournalism
Motion pictures (5 points)
-almost exclusively a U.S. invention
-enabled by industrialization, urbanization, and immigration that created audiences
-movie-going forever changed entertainment landscape
-appealed to all classes
-changed journalism through broadcast newsreels, 1910 through 1950s
Radio in home entertainment
-went commercial in Roaring 20s
-by 1940s, U.S. families spent four hours per day listening to radio
-brought in "prime time" concept
Philo T. Farnsworth
The "forgotten father of television"
First TV broadcasts
1936 by BBC
NBC's beginning of operations
how many TV sets in U.S. by 1951
10 million
Time Magazine's comment about color TV when it first came out
"the most resounding industrial flop of 1956"
Cultural impacts of TV
-instant info in full color
-major consumer of time (average high school graduate has spent more time watching TV than in school; average household has TV on 7 hours)
-transformed politics; sound bites and special events over substance
-major exporter of U.S. culture
Satellites, computers, and digitization have fueled exponential growth in:
-the capacity of global systems
-the amount of info generated
-speed w/ which info is transmitted
First satellite
launched by Russia, Sputnik I in 1956
Communiations Satellite Act of 1962
regulation attempts resulted in COMSAT
First Geosynchronous satellite
launched in 1965, Early Bird; marked real beginning of global satellite communications
How many satellites launched a year these days?
How much does each satellite cost about?
$75 million
by the late 90s, how many satellites were operating
nearly 3 million
Telecommunications industry's annual global revenues
exceeding $500 billion
early rendition of internet created in 1969 for U.S. Department of Defense
First time internet is introduced as a term
Internet commercialized
Worldwide web
developed by Tim Berners-Lee in 1991
"surfing the internet"
Jean Amour Polly
How many people have internet access?
730 million
Chain of expanding Global Village
interaction of people=
increase interest in information=
pressure on govts to offer more freedom=
increases in market for media=
more information=
even greater interest=
(and it starts again!)
(CNN international) reaches hotels and 100 million homes in 200+ countries
BBC's World Service
Radio station, 140 million listeners in 43 languages
Voice of America
International radio station, started in 1950s, broadcasts to Europe and Asia
"The capacity to effect get things done" (Henry Mintzberg)
Ways government control media
-owning the media and reporters
-setting policy by which media function
-issuing licenses
-regulating airwaves
-regulating print
Media power in democratic nations (4 points)
-media role is to act as watchdog
-media set agendas that move governments (civil rights, watergate, etc.)
-the "CNN effect" (tv puts far-away issues in minds of people and govts.)
-media obsessions (conflict, scandals, U.S. media for brevity, etc.)
"[Media owners] have their own political agenda.... They exert a homogenizing power over ideas, culture and commerce that affects populations larger than any in history."
Ben Bagdikian
"The media appear to have less power than the average person assumes; media effects on audiences are relatively minor."
Joseph Klapper
Outcomes affected by media
-Changing people (getting them to do certain things or believe certain things)
-changing society (getting a group of people, community or even nation to change, immediately or over time)
-changing organizations, including local, state/provincial/prefecture, or even national governments
Four Media theories
-libertarian media theory
-social responsibility media theory
-authoritarian media theory
-soviet media theory
Libertarian media theory
-John Stuart Mill
-"Free marketplace of ideas"-best recognized while worst fail
-based on individual rights of free speech, freedom of religion, freedom of press, freedom of assembly
-completely unfettered media-no control or constraints
Social Responsibility media theory
-arose around 1860s
-media are form of public stewardship
-unlimited media lead to irresponsibility
-media are still free, police themselves: "self-regulation"
-codes of professional conduct
-councils for dealing with violations
Authoritarion media theory
-governments are quasi-democratic to authoritarian and "paternalistic"
-media "privately owned" but usually licensed
-media cover anything as long as they are "responsible" and don't "criticize the king"
-best describes Daily Universe and administrative relationship
Soviet media theory
-media controlled completely by the state, or national government
-soviets viewed role positively, as provider of information and builder of cultural values
Development media theory
-prevalent throughout world of developing nations
-governments believe society needs to be "nurtured" toward economic growth
-media are major tools in that process
-media role is to educate masses toward economic and social growth
-licenses allocated (and taken away) by government
Democratic-participant media theory
-supports media on much smaller scale--very localized
-challenges necessity of large, centralized, or commercialized media
-local media must be interactive vehicles for everyone involved
-favor "horizontal" interaction--everyone on equal grounds
Media roles by country
-government propaganda, persuasion
Developing nations:
-rally masses for economic development
Western Media, U.S.:
-government watchdog
-commercial catalyst
Effects of media (6 points)
-agenda setting
-TV advertising
-exposure and congnition
Media effects landmarks
1920s: media as "magic bullet"
1940s: two-step flow hypothesis
1960s: Klapper's no effects at all
1970s: limited effects within other contexts
Theory of selectivity
proposes that people interact with media selectively, by choice (selective attention or exposure, selective perception, selective retention)
Agenda framing
media DO tell us what to think AND how to think about it
Agenda building
how stories are portrayed over time
"media are not so successful in telling people what to think as what to think about"
Bernard Cohen
Catalysts of socialization (6 points)
Media as socializer
-source of information
-influencer of attitudes and belief
1970s FCC ruled children need protection from ads because:
-children are vulnerable
-children can be more easily deceived by exaggerated claims
-early disappointments can lead to cynical consumer behavior
How many voters have already made up their minds before campaigns begin

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