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Palmer 15


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HM Stanley
Sent to find Livingstone; published a book about it that inspired colonial exploration into the area.
French Indochina
Region that is currently Vietnam today--French took occupation in 1880s and formed the French Indochina Union in 1894
Jameson Raid
Lead by Jameson; a raid on the Boers in 1895; lead to a British defeat
Leopold, King of Belgium
Organized the Congo Association to explore central Africa; he sent Stanley to negotiate with local leaders; purpose was rubber and ivory.
Japan and Imperialism
Modernized rapidly, adopting a Western economy, industry and military; adopted western imperialism practices; => conflict in China over Korea & winning of Liaotung Peninsula (Port Aruthur) and Formosa (modern day Taiwan)
Whites in southern Africa of Dutch extraction; didn't like the British who moved into the territory and they set up the Transvaal and Orange Free State; relatively peaceful until diamonds and gold were discovered in the Transvaal
Liaotung Peninsula
Location of Port Arthur; Japanese won this from China in 1894
Fashoda Crisis
Conflict with France and English in the Sudan over the English's attempt to form the "cape to Cairo" band;
Brussels Conference (1889)
Leopold promised to stop illegal slave trade, reduce traffic in firearms and liquor; no real means to enforce the measures;
Boer War
Following Jameson Raid, there was a war between the Boers and the British (1899 - 1902) and the British won. Afrikaners took oath of loyalty to England, but were allowed to govern themselves; pretty much the end of territorial change in Africa
Machine Gun
New technology; developed by the British and the dominant weapon of the time.
Russo-Japanese War
Japan attacks Russia at Port Arthur => Russia sending Baltic fleet only to see it destroyed by Japan => Western onlookers realized the East could beat up the West => Treaty of Portsmouth => Japanese control of Liaotung, Port Arthur, "preferred position" in Manchuria and control in Korea
Progress Toward Improvement in Africa
Europeans curbed tribal warfare, slavery, superstition, disease and illiteracy. Class of westernied, educated Africans eventually emerged; some went to Universities and they fought against European exploitation.
Suez Canal
Canal in the Suez that shortened the distance between Europe and the East. Originally French; the English bought up owning shares.
Native Indian soldiers fighting in the British military
Substance used to treat and prevent malaria; allowed exploration of Africa
British East India Company
First controlling power of England in India
Russian Imperialism
Persia (modern day Iraq); seeking warm-water ports
Libya (Tripoli)
Italy captured this region from the Turks in 1911; example of colonial rivalry leading to the climate of World War I.
The Mahdi
Muslim extremists in the Sudan (south of Africa) opposed to British expansion; defeated an Egyptian army and General "Chinese" Gordon; eventually taken out by Lord Kitchner
Congo Association
Organized by Leopold; purpose was to explore and develop central Africa
The concept that Europeans not be held accountable to Chinese law
The word means "farmer" in Afrikaans; they resented the influx of British into the area; hostile to the British; Cecil Rhodes sent in a military force under the leader of Jameson
Imperialism in Egypt
Egypt part of the Ottoman Empire; had its own hereditary rule; Egypt sank into debt building Cairo into a modern European city => debt => they sold their shares in the Suez Canal to the British, but money problems ensued => European controllers of the finances => riots => English occupation => puppet government
David Livingstone
Scottish medical missionary who explored inside Africa; nobody heard from him for some time
Charles "Chinese" Gordon (Africa)
General brought in to get rid of Madhi "problem" in the Sudan; killed in the process
Open Door Policy
American concotion; divided China into spheres of influence; China would remain indepdendent and intact, trading with all nations => China feeling victimized => Boxer Rebellion
South Pacific Imperialism
Tahiti => France; Fiji => Germany; Marshal Islands and Samoa => Germany; New Guinea => Britain & Germany; New Caledonia => France;
Cecil Rhodes
English explorer in Africa who attempted to put together the "cape to cairo" band; lead to conflict with the French and the Fashoda Crisis
City in the Transvaal that became a boomtown with the discovery of diamonds
Sepoy Rebellion
Rebellion of Indians vs. the British; begun when it was rumored that England would remove the caste system => rumor that the British greased rifle guns with animal fat, which was in violation of both Muslim and Hindu beliefs => 200 English women and children getting killed in the revolt of sepoys => extreme British backlash (village burning and native hangings) => total British rule of southern India
Congo Free State
Nation set up under Belgian control; quickly became on of the largest scandals at the turn of the Century; the Belgian government would take over the free state and turn it into the Belgian Congo, curbing some of the worse offenses, such as forced labor.
Disease transmitted by mosquitos; prevented deep exploration of Africa. British discovered that quinine will prevent the contracting of malaria.
Lord Kitchner
Second force brought in to get rid of the Mahdi; he killed 11,000 Mahdists and secured, fully, the Sudan for the English
City south of Egypt in the Sudan; location of a Muslim rebellion lead by the Madhi against British expansion South
Otto von Bismark (imperialism)
hosted the 1885 Berlin Conference to set up "rules" for how to acquire the African territory
Social Darwinism
the idea that Europeans were the "fitter" race and hence justified in imperialism
Japan vs. Russa
Competiton for Manchuria; Japan wanted raw materials and mainland markets and recognition as a great power; Russian Tzar (Nicholas II) needed a war to make himself look good and weaken criticism at home => Japan attacking Russia at Port Arthur (1904), following Russian attempts to increase control => Russo-Japanese War => the reality that the East could militarily beat a Western Power.
Sino-Japanese War
1894-1895 war between China and Japan => annexation of Taiwan, increased Japanese trade privaleges and political influence in Korea, control of Liaotung Peninsula.
"free land"
What the Europeans considered the interior of Africa to be.
fiber used in burlap, twine, carpets, sacks and rope and grown in Inida
Dutch East Indies
Duth colony north of Australia (modern day Indonesia); ideal colony because they exported more than they imported; rich resources; no competition with European goods; location of forced labor producing sugar cane and coffee; native languages were allowed to remain.
English Change in India
irrigation, railroads, cottage industry, police and a justice system; production of rice, opium, jute, indigo and tea. Not allowed to make products that competed with England (cotton or salt); English language enforced in schools, government and business; bright Indians were educated at Oxford and Cambridge and then served in the government
Taiping Rebellion
Revolt against Manchu dynasty in China by the Chinese peasants; lasted 14 years => British intervention by General "Chinese" Gordon. Result was treaty system, which gave foreign powers more power.
Kruger Telegram
Sent by William II of Germany to Paul Kruger, the Afrikaner governor of the Transvaal congratulating him on the defeat of the British; indicated that the British were not favored to be successful.
Rudyard Kipling
"White Man's Burden"; expression of the Social Darwinist theme and a poem to America to 'try out' imperialism
Arguments for Imperialism
civilizing the "savages;" spread Christianity; biological and zoological exploration; see the sights; commercial interests; a place for surplus population to go; owning colonies was a sign of strength and prestige
Evelyn Baring
British administrator in Egypt; reformed economy to improve peasants while still maintaining commercial interests there.
1885 Berlin Conference
Hosted by Bismark; agreement was that companies that had holdings on the coast of Africa had a right to the interior; occupation had to be physical, with administration and troops, and a nation was obliged to inform other countries of the claim; also set up the Congo Free State
Opium Wars
England wanted silk, tea and Chinese luxury items; Chinese wanted nothing Western => discovery that the Chinese would buy Indian opium => Chinese lockdown on opium imports => British smuggling of opium into the country => occupation of Peiking by British and French forces => Hong Kong, Canton and Shanghai being "treaty ports."
Treaty of Portsmouth (1905)
Negotiated by Teddy Roosevelt => Japanese control of Liaotung, Port Arthur, "preferred position" in Manchuria and control in Korea; Russia would turn its attention to the Balkans and away from East Asia => brief rebellion in Russia
Region of Southern Africa originally founded by Afrikaners; became a source of interest for the British following the discovery of gold and diamonds => Boer War
Boxer Rebellion
Rebellion of the Boxers (a Chinese society) against Chinese Christians following the open door policy; => Europe and the US restoring order; Overall, this would lead to the collapse of the Manchu dynasty and pave the road to the Chinese revolution

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