This site is 100% ad supported. Please add an exception to adblock for this site.

WH: Spring Exam 26, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 33, 34, 35, 36


undefined, object
copy deck
1878, treaty with us giving extraterritoy
Deng Xlaoping
practical reformer, mao's successor
Liliou Kalani
Hawaiian queen overthrown in 1893
Great liberation
50 new African nations
Egypt and Iraq
leaders toppled monarchs who were tied to western powers
Diego Rivera
socialist Mexican painter of murals (1886-1957)
original people
government ruled by religious leaders
Hindu India + Muslim Pakistan
august 8, 1945
soviet union declares war on japan
june 1940
fall of france
Middle eastern languages
over 30 different
democratic rule- greece
Palestine Liberation Organization, whose goal was the destruction of Israel
Indian independence
European Community (EC)
Common Market, 1957, goal was to expand free trade, same six nations as the coal and steel community, ended tariffs on goods and allowed workers to move freely (1973) britain joined with ireland and denamrk
Karol Wojtyla
archbishop of polish city
rebels in Mozambique starved or killed tens of thousands of civilians, destroyed schools and health clinics
shah actually leaves Iran
convservatives in power
treaty of Kanagawa
India's 1950 constitution
banned discrimination of untouchables (lowest caste)
Located across the Mediterranean from France
Army coup in Portugal topped Salazar's dictatorship
limiting communism
atheism favored, Russian Orthodox Church was targeted as bad
cold war
for more than 40 years, divided europe into two hostile military alliances
Locarno treaties
(1925) seven european nations signed a series of treaties, settled Germany's desputed bordeds, became symbol of a new era
condition in which production of goods exceeds the demand for them
Henri Matisse
bold color, odd distortions
Iraq and Syria
single party won power
greece military rulars came to power
Totalitarian State
gov. in which a one-party dictatorship controls every aspect of citizens lives
De Gaulle resigned
october 1940
italy invaded greece, greece and yugoslavia added to axis powers
Theodor Herzl
responded to growing anthiseminism by founding zionist movement
Nehru industry
built dams to produce hydroelectric power and poured resources into industries (steel)
Robert Mugabe
leader of an African nationalist group, fought with Nkomo over Zimbabwe, won and became the elected president, called for a one-party system to promote national unity and tolerated little opposition
Rajiv Gandhi sent troops to smash the rebels in Sri Lanka
new constitution
European Coal and Steel Community
(1952) France, west germany, belgium, italy and netherlands, set prices and regulated the coal and steel industries
margaret thatcher
11 years as britain's prime minister, iron lady
big 3
russia, us, uk
Fourth Republic
(1946) inefective, France
Rudolf Hoess
admitted to killing 2.5 million people
British North American 1867
dominion of Canada
september 7
57 nights, 15000 people died
African Focus
health care, literacy, economic development, end to racism and imperialism, pressed nations of the global North to deal with the unequal distribution of wealth
archduke Francis Ferdinand of Austria Hungary and wife are killed in Sarajevo, starts world war one
August 15, 1947
Indian independence
munich conference 1938
britain and france chose apeasment
deliberate murder
Egypts indep.
India's development
lacked oil and natural gas (essential to economic growth) relies on imported oil
War on terrorism
U.S. launched an attack on Afghanistan that drove the Taliban from power
Albert Einstein
theories of relativity,
itlay conquered ethopia
Alexandre Dubeck
liberal reforms to czechslovaki, soviets responded, ousted by warsaw pact
Women's War
full fledged revolt. women armed with machetes and sticks mocked British troops and shouted at them
new afghan government set out on the difficult task of restoring peace
Stalin's death
communist party officials assigned to the army to teach party principles and ensure loyalty
Stream of Consciousness
probe a character's random thoughts and feelings without imposing any logic or order
Civil Disobedience
a refusal to obey unjust laws
Provisional Government
temporary government set up by the Duma politicians
Maginot Line
Line, as this defensive "wall" was called, offered a sense of security
poland, hungary and czech republic
Treaty of Versailles
June 1919, Germany signed, full blame on Germany, huge reparations, limited size of German military
Treaty of Kanagawa
1854, open 2 ports for america but not for trade
Charles de Gaulle
hero of WWII, prez, nuclear force ties with germany
Irish Republican Army
Sun Yixian
"father" of Chinese Revolution, new chinese republic took shape, set goal to catch up and surpass east and west powers. Qing Dynasty- collapse 1911, sun hoped to rebuild China on the three principles of the People, little progress happened
Anwar Sadat
took steps to open Egypt to foreign investment, moved away from the soviet camp
thatcher's government
reduced social welfare grograms and returned gov. run industries to private control
right of people to choose own forms of government
democracy, freedom of speech
disarmament talks
reduce the threat of nuclear destruction
gov. leaders organize Institutional Revolutionary Party, dominated Mexican politics ever since, accommodates all groups, backs reforms
leader of Nazi's, organize his supporters into fighting squads, had an obsession with extreme nationalism, racism and antisemitism, promised to end reparations, create jobs and defy the Versailles treaty
Middle eastern religions
Judaism, Christianity and Islam
James Joyce
'Finnegans Wake' inner mind of sleeping hero
September 2 1945
peace treaty
Canadian pacific railroad
1885 east and west
African independent nations
Egypt, Ethiopia, Liberia and South Africa
trade deficit
purchesed more goods than japan bought from them
large farms owned and operated by peasants as a group
Nehru in Cold war
welcomed economic aid from superpowers, embraced nonaligned movement
Unseated shogun restored emperor
1973 OPEC oil embargo
showed that oil could be a powerful diplomatic and economic weapon
Iraqi troops invaded Kuwait
uprisings against Israeli occupation
japan advanced, japan bans selling of war materials
battle of the buldge
germany and the allies
Balfour Declaration
Socialist Realism
artistic style whose goal was to promote socialism by showing soviet life in a positive light
Third Reich
under hitler
India's population issues
population tripled, growth hurt improvements
first free election in poland
the reduction of armed forces and weapons
Postwar Europe
finding jobs for veterans, rebuilding war-ravaged lands, huge debts, economic problems, social unrest
Reza Khan overthrows the Shah and begins the Pahlavi dynasty
end fighting
HItler Youth
poldged absolute loyalty to Germany (young boys)
franco dominated fascist ditatorship
Muhammad Mosaddiq
nationalists in Iran's parliament voted to nationalize the oil industry
truman doctrine
resist soviet expansion
Sino-japenese war
1894, japan vs. china japan won ports in chia and taiwan
European political system
undermined Africa's traditional political systems, they told Africans how to govern, and denied educated African top jobs in colonial governments
atlantic charter
august 1941, goals for war, distruction of nazis
may 1942
japan controlled much of the philipines
Emperor, resigned (1926-1989) japan experienced successes and tragedies
Benito Mussolini
intense nationalist, promised to end corruption, and replace turmoil with order, prime minister, built first totalitarian state
Mohandas Gandhi
former lawyer who addapted the weapon of nonviolent resistance, he called it staya-graha
Stalin launches the Great Purge, chineses communism make an epic retreat aka the Long March
Canada act of 1791
split Canada up
Osama bin Laden
planned and carried out 9-11
South African won self-rule from Britain, limited to whites (20%)
Captain James cook
Australia and New Zealand
Nicolae Ceausescu
romania dictator
5 year plan
"phony war"
quite time, first winter, french hid behind Maginot line
Homogeneous society
common culture and language
Antonio Salazar
Portuguese dictator, rejected African demands for freedom
spread of disease across an entire country or multiple countries
Saudi Arabia and Kuwait, built roads, hospitals and schools
Economic Policies
turned to socialism, depended on the industrial world, took foreign loans, built large projects in industry and agriculture
Brezhev Doctrine
su had right to intervene in any warsaw pact nation
Desmond Tutu wins Nobel peace prize
end of the Iran-Iraq War and Khomeini's death
Charles de Gaulle
president of France (1958)
guest workers
in germany and other european countires, from turkey and middle east, provided low-wage labor for booming countires
Bangladesh Population
50 million people live below the poverty level
Order and progress
strengthened army, local police and central government
mass migration leading to violence, 10 million fled, 1 million died
African troops
came home to discrimination and second-class citizenship at home
Josip Tito
Yugoslavia, battled german forces, communist government
Zulfikar Ali Bhutto
civilian president, overthrown and executed by military
Battle at Somme River
1916, attempt to break stalemate, 5 months
us ends neutrality and enters WWI
jewish nationalist
december 11
us enters war
east germany
communist, low unemployment, basic health
Cons of Green Revolution
only farmers with enough land and money could afford to grown new crops, most used old, depending on methods, little surplus
Battle of Tannenburg
Aug. 1914, Russia pushed into Germany, Russia lost
European Union (EU)
common market, promoted regional prosperity, pushed for economic unity and politial unity, launched the euro (1999),
irish independence
elite revolutionary party, small %,
African education
emphasized elementary education; colonial rulers built more hospitals and schools. Established few secondary schools and a handful of universities, limited access to education
west germany
western alliance
Indian Independence
William Lyon Mackenzie
leader of Upper Canada revolt
Pakistani ruler to crush rebels (millions fled to India) India attacked and defeated Palestine
communist international which aided rev. groups and urged colonial people to rise up
Mein Kampf
'My Struggle' by hitler, later became the basic book of nazi goals and ideology, reflected obsession
Brezhnev Doctrine
pull S.U troops out of afgan
Storm Troopers
Hitler's men
Phan thanh glan
Viet official and patriot
spanish civil war
hungarians revolted
nuclear family
no leading male
Spanish American war
1848 joined Cuba against Spain
Lenin adopts the NEP and comm. takes a win (still in chaos)
Gregory Rasputin
peasant and self-proclaimed "holy man", healer, came to have power over czarina. 1916 had immense amount of power over Alexandria. he appointed officials. assassinated on December 29, 1916
March 1917
1st of 2 revolutions to topple Romanov dynasty
policed gunned down 69 men and women taking part in a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, government outlawed ANC and cracked down on apartheid opposition groups
March 1917
Lenin returns from exile
north atlandtic treaty organization
Puerto Rico
us got in Spanish American war, guan and Philippines
west berlin
democratic, showcase for german prosperity
Constitution of 1922
both democratic and socialist, set up an elected legislature (Supreme Soviet) gave all citizens over 18 the right to vote
Ariel Sharon
conservative Israeli announced that there would be no further talks until all anti-Israeli terrorism ceased
september 1941
2 1/2 leningrad seige
Cecil Rhodes
leading promoter of British imperialism
Alexandra Kottontai
(1905) noted how little attention was paid to the fate of women and women's liberation, became the higheds ranking woman to serve in Lenin's government, and campaigned for women's rights
the fact or condition of having more than one wife or husband at once.
1970's reform
blamed social and economic ills on blind imitation of western models and applied Islamic principles to the search for solutions
soviet declinded, germany moved towards unification
Pablo Picasso
OAU problems
impact was limited, because it had no power to enforce, also strongly opposed interfering in the internal affair of member states
influential families
striked by ship workers
Salt march
Gold Coast
first African nation south of the Sahara to win freedom, British colony
Un drew up plans to partition Palestine in to a Arab and Jewish state, Jews accepted it, but Arabs rejected it
Pearl Harbor
Amritsar Massacre
city in N. India, Commander General Reginald Dyer banned public meetings and arrived with 50 soldiers and no warning, in 10 minutes1,000 dead
Vaclav Havel
president of czech republic
hitler sent troops into rhineland breaking treaty
takeover of property or resources by the gov.
payments for war damage
African policies
new policies toward their African colonies, introduced political reforms that would lead to gradual independence, colonial powers soon learned that they could dictate neither the terms nor the pace of change
Bill Clinton
extended Palestinian self-rule and arranged timetables for Israeli withdrawal from disputed lands
Dutch east India company
gained control of Moluccas
government takeover of natural resources, allowed in the constitution of 1917
Southern Rhodesian declared independence
maria fourcade
french directed underground
Japan's invasion of Manchuria
august 9, 1945
second bomb dropped, nagasaki
Triple Alliance with Italy and Austria Hungary
Command Economy
government officials made all basic economic decisions, developed by the S.U
Gamal Abdel Nasser
Arab leader, set out to modernize Egypt and end western domination, nationalized the Suez canal, led two wars against the Zionist state, remained a symbol of independence and pride, returned to socialism, nationalized banks and businesses, limited economic policies
Whites in South Africa
controlled vast mineral resources and the most fertile land, passed racial laws to keep the black majority in a subordinate position
Southern Rhodesia became the nation of Zimbabwe
japans only window into the world, Dutch allowed very limited trade
failed to make payments on debt
puppet state set up by Japan after they conquered Manchuria
Hermit kingdom
first modern Olympic games in Athens
Jacques Chirac
conservative, cut government spending
powerful form of nationalism saying al slavs held a common nationality
Kemal Ataturk
began campaign to transform turkey into a modern state
Lenin's secret police
sect derived from Islam
Korea opens ports to Japanese
Lech Walesa
organized solidarity
UN in Africa
joined after independence, contributed to and benefited from the UN, African served in UN peace missions
detect planes
Irish Republican Army
Kenya becomes a republic and Kenyatta a president
yeltsin failed to crush revolt in chechnya
Platt amendment
1901, add to Cuban constitution gave naval bases and right to interfere
lend-lease act
early 1941, allowed FDR to sell or lend war materials to any country
Black Shirts
supporters of mussolini, broke up socialist rallies, smashed leftists presses and attacked farmer's cooperatives
Indian Federal system
powers divided between central government and small local, 15 official languages and 35 regional
Aswan High Dam
upper Nile, created a huge reservoir, Lake Nasser, and two million acres of farmland, controlled Nile flood waters and made year round irrigation possible, increased salt content of the Nile, destroyed fish hatcheries
Nadezhda Krupskaya
daughter of a poor noble family arrested with Lenin in 1895 and sent to Siveria, married to Lenin, after release they went to Swit. they worked to spread revolutionary ideas, returns with some followers, worked on revolution
1973 War
Arabs attacked Israel but failed to regain territories, Israel refused to give up the territories until Arab nations recognized Israel's right to exist
pearl harbor
december 1941, japan attacked
Japanese Objectives
destroy militarism, democratic government
Four Modernization
agriculture, industry, science, and defense
Organization of African Unity, promoted cooperation among members, supported independence and sough peaceful settlements of disputes
fierce circular windstorms
dominant native tribe in Kenya
welfare state
government expanded benefits such as unemploment insurance and old-age pensions, built housing fo the poor and provided free or low cost medical care
German submarines sink the ocean liner Lusitanian
Three Western Democracies
Great Britain, France, U.S, ruled the Paris Peace Conference and boosted hopes for democracy
dependent states
counterrevolutionaries who were loyal to the czar.
allies control most of west europe
an armistice ends war on nova. 11th
Revolution of 1905
Nicholas II failed to fix the politcal, economic and social problems in Russia
single-party dictatorship, state control of econ, use of polic spies and terror, strict censorhip and government monopoly of the media
Sonia Gandhi
widow of Rajiv Gandhi
Venustiano Carranza is elected & Constitution, two revolutions lead to the creation of a comm. gove in Rusia
Yitzhak Rabin
Israeli prime Minster
Trench warfare
underground network linker bunkers, trenches and gun emplacements
welfare state
government kepps most features of a capitalist economy but takes geater responsibility for the social and economic needs of its people
Constitution of 1917
addressed the three major issues of land, religion and labor
Client states
dependent on the support of a stronger power
prepare its military forces for war
Economic Nationalism
emphasis on domestic control of the economy
red guards
mao's people
Totalitarian State
gov. 1 party dictatorship regulates all aspects of a citizen's life
sigapor got independence
Blacks during Apartheid
permission to travel and had to carry passbooks or face arrest, assigned to homelands based on ethnic groups, paid less to work, low wages and inferior schooling
Sikh separatists vs. troops of indir Gandhi (Amritsar)
may 7th 1945
germany surrenders
Key Waterways
Bosporus, Suez Canal and the Persian Gulf
British Commonwealth of Nations
(1931) Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa
german forces invade Poland WW2 begins
destruction of forest land, caused terrible floods
rugged interior
august 1939
hitler pact with stalin
Marie Curie
found that atoms of certain elements spontaneously release charge particles, radioactivity
cold war divided germany
1905 + 1911 France and Germany competed for colonies because germy wanted to prevent France for imposing a protectorate on morocco and diplomats kept the peace and Germany gained some territory in Africa, and then Britain and France sided together
Japanese Parliament
april 1940
war exploded, hitler vs. norway & denmark
only high ranking woman to serve in Lenin's gov.
russia's first free election
British gives Egypt independence
cheif minister
Mother Teresa
roman nun, founded order in Calcutta (missionaries of charity)
italy invaded ethiopia
ethenic clearing
serbs killed people of other ethnic groups
Irish Free State
(1922) agreement, self-governing
Cultural Nationalism
pride in one's own culture
united states sent aid to stop communist threat to turkey
detente came to end S.U invaded Afgan
Zionist Movement
rebuild jewish state in palestine, migrate there soon and join small jewish communities
1963 Nuclear test ban treaty
banned the testing of nuclear weapons in the atmosphere, underground was still permitted
sugihara chlune
japanese diplomate
African economy
expensive manufactured goods and technology from the west, many large farms and mine were owned by westerners
Debt service
paying interest on loads, takes 40 percent of the nation's budget leaving little for development
March 1917
bread riots in St.Petersburg
temporary alliance
several villages
Un Failure
tried to help restore peace to Somalia, they withdrew, and Burundi and Rwanda tried to help feed refugees of civil war
French peace with algerians
Oslo accord
based on secret discussions held earlier in Oslo, Norway. Signed by Arafat and Israeli prime minister, gave Palestinians in gaze and the west bank limited self-rule under an independent Palestinian authority headed by Arafat
peace treaty, U.S + Japan
Anwar made peace with Israel
Nelson Mandela
mobilized young South African, joined ANC, arrested in early 1960's, 27 years in prison, released by F.W. De Klerk, became first democratic president
sino-japenese war
movement taht attempted to portray the workings of the unconscious mind
racial separation and economic and political discrimination against non-whites a policy formerly practiced in the republic of South Africa (abolished in 1989)
Kwame Nkrumah
Ghana, skilled political organizers, impatient with Britain's policy of gradual movement, inspired by Marcus Gravey, studied nonviolent methods of India's Gandhi, organized a radical political party, tried to win concessions from Britain, imprisoned then became prime minister
Arab-Israeli Conflict
1948, 1956, 1967, 1973
general tojo
japan military leader
mao zedong dies
Canadian act of union
labour party
battle of stalingrad
hilter to capture, germany surrendered, 1943, 300,000 killed
Mikhail Gorbachev
1985, soviet leader
prime minister
Anna Akhmatova
One of Russia's greatest poets, who could not publish her works because it violated state guidelines
payments for damage
Turkey government
multiparty democracy
Porfirio Diaz
dictator (1875-1880)(1884-1911)
Emiliano Zapata
southern Mexico, led a peasant revolt, understood the misery of peasant villagers, followers call Zapatistas
communist party newspaper
policy of supporting neither side in a war
singler currency to be used by the EU as currency
Nationalist party formed by Sun Yixian
Mexico recovers from revolution and civil war
German nationalism
proud of new empire's military power and industrial leader
led India
local strongmen that assembled private armies to resist central governemt
detect submarines
NATO vs. Serbs
deplomatic relations with china
Konrad Adenauer
1949-1963, chancellor, rebuilt cities, capitalist county
a liberal reformer who demanded free elections and was later elected prez
Korean war
N vs. S.
united germany
high taxes
March 1917
disaster on the battlefiled combined with food and fuel shortages on the home front brought the monarchy to collapse
Lech Walesa president of poland
Lower Canada
French (British ignored needs)
Cecil Rhodes
took control of the region of Southern Rhodesia
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
Early 1990's
encouraged foreign investment
OPEC raised prices again triggering a severe recession
May 4th, Pan-African
Perrez Musharraf
general, dismissed elected government and suspected constitution, promised to revise economy, fight corruption and restore a stable government
Durham report
balled for united Canada
ANC was set up to oppose white domination
berlin arilift
lifting food to berlin when they were surrounded by the soviet union
Japan adds Manchuria to their empire (Manzhouguo)
Liberation War in Algeria
1954 to 1962, France vs. Algeria, half-million French troops went to Algeria, thousands were killed, and hundreds of thousands of Algerians
economic woes set off riots
japan overran east china
Night of the Broken Glass
Kristallnacht, November 17,1938, shot and wounded a diplomat in paris, this was used as a anti-jew thing
Long March
(1934) Jiang Jieshi vs. Mao Zedong, 100,000 followers fled Geomindang, 20,000 people survived, stood a symbol of comm. heroism to chinese who opposed Guamin
communist party offiials assigned to the army to teach party principles and unsure party loyalty
Ataturk modernizes Turkey
earliest people living there
Leonid Brezhnev
mid 1960's, suppressed dissidents
helpin nazi's track down jews
Ayatollah Khomeini v. Saddam Hussein
glorification of military
pilots who undertook suicide missions
assembly or legislature of Japan
Japanese government traveled to learn western ways
Attacks on Mau Mau
forced into concentrations camps, combers pounded armed mau mau, totaled about 75 dead among whites and 13,000 Kenyans
june 22, 1940
germany forced france to surrender
union of Austria and germany
war communism
policy adopted by the communist
V.I Lenin
leader of the Bolsheviks, born in 1870 to a middle-class family, his family was branded as a threat to the state, which instilled a hatred for the czarist government, studied Karl Marx and spread his teachings, married to Nadzhda Krupskaya,
Socialist Realism
goal was to boost socialism by showing Soviet life in a positive light
AFC African National Congress
Us helped oust Mosaddiq
nonbinding formal agreement to follow common policies
Hitler comes to power
hungary, poland and the czech republic entered NATO
Jawaharlal Nehru
Indian's first prime minister, 1947-1964, worked to build modern state
Stalin proposes a 5-year plan for Soviet economic growth
Sun Yixian's nationalist party
Tony Blair
1997, new prime minister, urged focus on needs of citizens
czar is overthrown in the Russian Revolution
Martin Niemoller
luthern minister, preached against nazi policies
Hosni Mubarak
reaffirmed the peace with Israel, mended problems with Arab neighbors, and pushed for peace
Pakistan and India both tested nuclear weapons
lightning war
Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
small spanish market town that was attacked in april 1937
soviet problems
unproductive agriculture
Peace, Land, and Bread
Promise of Lenin & Bolsheviks
Africa was controlled by four European powers
Cold War affects
local conflicts within Africa, us and s.u. supported rival groups in southern Africa, two superpowers along the red sea became involved in a long and bloody war between Ethiopia and Somali, left a painful legacy, weapons came to tribes and clans who spread violence across the land
African heath care
western doctors developed vaccines for yellow fever and smallpox, helped reduce deaths from malaria more likely provided by missionaries rather than government
east berlin
Good Neighbor Policy
Policy of Roosevelt's which led to the recall of US troops from Nicaragua and Haiti; supposed change in US interventionist policy in Latin America, which really represented no change in interests/involvement.
F.W. de Klerk
abandoned apartheid, repealed the hated pass laws and lifted the ban on the ANC, freed Mandela, negotiated with Mandela over the terms by which S.A would move to majority rule
Mao Zedong
communist who escaped Jieshi's attack and led the Long March
Indira Gandhi
daughter of Jawaharlal, killed by bodyguards
Julius Neyerere
Tanzania, embraced socialism
cold war
conflicting ideologies, soviet union vs. west
Monroe doctrine
1823, American is not allowed to be colonized
Tour De France
(1994) crossed from france to england through chunnel
Autumn of 1929
jitters caused brokers to call in loans, investors who were unable to repay were forced to sell their stoc
Lenin adoped NEP
Weimar Constitution
gove women the right to vote, parliamentary system, and had a bill of rights
U.S attacks Vera Cruz (punish Mex. For imprisoning American soldiers)
soviet success
weapons, science, technology, steel
"great leap forward"
1958 increase farma nd indsutry output
Virginia Woolf
'Mrs. Dalloway', explore the hidden thoughts of people
arab nationalism, built on shared heritage of Arabs living in the Arbaian Peninsula to North Africa, mphasized common history and lang. sought to free Arabs from foreign dom.
Lebanon civil war
warsaw pact
Nazi-Soviet Pact
1939 bound hitler and stalin to peaceful relations, not to fight if the oher went to war and to divide up poland and other parts of europe
Canadian act of union
1840 elected legislature for domestic policy
Calcutta & Bombay
not enough jobs, no water or sewage
educated Africans organize a political party known as the ANC
Rome-Berlin-Toyko Axis
Germany, Italy and japan, agreed to fight soviet communism, and not to interfere with each other
Roosevelt corollary
1904, policy to the Monroe doctrine "international police power" in western hemisphere
german air raid, april 1937, 1,600 killed
bataan death march
68 mile 10,000 killed
Islamic fundamentalists
wanted to separate religion and government
Japan industry
steel, silk
Caste system
higher Hindus (better schools and jobs) 1990's tried to open jobs, Hindus protested
composed of lines, colors, and shapes with no subject at all
june 6 1944, invasion of france, allied troops from english channel broke through german defneses and advanced into paris
greek government attempted to get cyprus
Soviet Union
multinational state made up of European and Asian peoples, all the member republics shared certain rights
La reforma
era of reforming 1855
corporate state
cascist party controlled industry, agriculture and trade
"Rape of Nanjing"
Spanish-American war
1898 us vs. Spain over Cuba, us won
Britain breaks off relations with the Soviet Union
No-man's land
empty tract, pocked with shell holes, wide life is destroyed
Meiji constitution
people are all equal before law, emperor power, legislature wad a diet, banking railroads and ports, zzaibatsu, ended legal distinctions
emphasized the unity of Africans and people of African descent around the world
Iraqi argued that historically the region was part of Iraq, that would give Iraq one of the world's largest oil-producing areas but also access to the Persian gulf, this was seen as a threat to Saudi Arabia
japans became industrial leader
India divided
hundred of states, wide languages
Japanese women forbidden political power
policy of strict racial separation in South Africa
Sri Lankans
Buddhists who speak Singhalese, , Tamil-speaking Hindu minority faced discrimination,
custom that allows men to have more than one wife
Bosnia vs. Yugoslavia
Soviet Union, much of the old Russian empire in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics
George-Etienne Cartier
dominate by us
formally agreed to treat it as a legitimate government
Boris Yeltsin
russian leader, radical changes
warsaw pact
communist nations of eastern europe
may 1989
demonstraters called for reforms
Organization of African Unity
Leopold Senghor
part of negritude movement, which rejected negative vies of Africa, wrote "Black Woman", later takes role in Senegals drive to independence and would serve as it's 1st president
Mao Zedong
communist who escaped Jiang's attack, unlike others, believed communism should support large peasant masses, redistribute land to peasants, offered schooling + heath care
august 6, 1945
atomic bomb on hiroshima
people who spoke out against government
Nasser dies
Pakistan industries
encouraged private or mixed government and private ownership of businesses
November 1917
Red Army joined sailors from the Russian fleet in attacking the provisional government. Matter of days Lenin overthrew a government that lacked any support
Neville Chamberlain
british prime minister
Leon Blurn
(1936) socialist leader
Ernest Hemmingway
The Sun also Rises, rootless wanderings of young people who lack motivation
given to learned Shiite legal experts
Mikhail Gorbachev
eased the soviet grip on eastern europe, soviet leader
redefining objects into separate shapes
capital city of Lebanon
Prez of Mexico in 1917
council of workers & soldiers set up by Russia in 1917
despite problems, economic gains
spice islands
based on ethnic groups, located in arid, unproductive parts of the country
neutrality acts
forbade selling of arms to nations in war, outlawed loans to war nations, prohibited americans from traveling on ships of war powers
Women's groups
protested dowry laws
Jomo Kenyatta
Kenya, skilled political organizers, leading spokesman for the kikuyu, supported nonviolent methods to end oppressive laws, imprisoned, then released as a national hero, became prime minister and then president
Radical Groups
Hamas and Hizbullah, continued their terrorist attacks after the PLO had renounced terrorism
Propaganda war
controlling public opinion, spreading of ideas to promote a cause or damage an opposing cause
business dynasties who ruled industrial empires
November 1979
students take the American embassy for 444 days
Muslim Pakistan
two widely separated areas in north
Impact of WWI
(1914) fired national pride and united russia, armies fought with enthusiasm, quick strain on resources, factpries didn't have enough supplies, transportation broke down, by (1915) low supplies of gun/ammo
the PRI (institutional revolutionary party) is organized
civil war
Punjab region
Sikaha wanted independence
international sanctions further damaged the economy and droughts hurt, recovery was slowed by a power struggle between Mugabe and Nkomo, Mugabe won
wealthy peasants
1991 Gulf War
American missiles and bombers destroyed targets in Iraq, then under the UN banner, coalition forces pushed across the desert to liberate Kuwait, Iraqi blew up hundreds of Kuwaiti oil wells
India in 1950
poor, uneducated, divided by change, region language and religious ethnic
berlin wall
september 1940
moved italisn forces into egypt, general erwin rummet
Command Economy
system in which government officals make all basic economic decisions
plants that convert salty sea water into fresh water
Imre Nagy
1956, hungary, communist reformer, ended one-party rule and withdrew from WP, which cause S.U to retaliate
India's largely Muslim providence
Popular Front Government
tried so solve labor problems and passed some social legislation, did not satisfy more radical leftists.
1979 to 1989
soviet troops supported a harsh communist government
Venustiano Carranza
conservative, became president of Mexico in 1917, also approved a new constitution
Israeli development
built towns for settlers and provided many services, invested in industry and agriculture, skilled and educated work force, built factories and developed advanced farm methods
spanish king leave, republic is set up
Jordan and Saudi Arabia
hereditary monarchs
Namibia became independent
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
leader of Muslim league, wanted Muslims to have own state (Pakistan)
Japan tries to establish a protectorate over china
Pakistan in Cold war
felt threatened by India and the soviet union, joined united states
Nikita Khrushchev
soviet leader, eased censorship
Vaclav Havel
president of czech late 1989
temporary alliance of political powers
son of mongkut
gross domestic product, total value of all goods and services
margin buying
paying part of the cost and borrowing th rest from brokers
Hindu belief in nonviolence & reverence for all
Mikhail Sholokhov
"And Quiet Flows the Don" was allowed to be published despite restrictions. Won Nobel Prize for literature
Lenin & Nadezhda arrested
june 1941
operation barbarossa
new english channel tunnel, reflected closer ties among britain and france
unemployment, conservatives & labuor, retained colonies
Irish Republican Army
carried on a guerrilla war against british forces and their supporters
followers of Emiliano Zapata
Joshua Nkomo
leader of an African nationalist group, fought with Mugabe over Zimbabwe, lost
1967 War
Israeli forces won the Golan heights from Syria, east Jerusalem and the west bank from Jordan and the gaze strop and Sinai peninsula from Egypt
Ataturk Dam
goal was to irrigate southeastern turkey with water from the Tigris and Euphrates rivers turning the region into a breadbasket
New Economic Policy, (1921) allowed capitalist ventures, state kept control of banks, foreign trade, and large industries, small businesses were allowed to reopen for private profit stopped harassing peasants for grain, and peasants held on to small plots of land and sold surplus
Gorbachev resignes
Leon Trotsky
committed Marxist revolutionary that assisted Lenin, turned the Red army into an effective fihting force, use d former czarist officers under watch of commissars
final set of demands
Japan manufacter
high tech, skilled workers
New Deal
massive package of economic and social programs, regulated the stock market, protected savings, created jobs, aided farmers, social security
joint ventures
organize bussinesses ith china
WWII ends
Fifth Republic
King Victor Emmanuel III
asked Mussolini to be prime minister
milosevic ended self-rule
giving in to the demands off an aggressor to keep the peace
growing class of factory and railroad workers, miners and urban wage earners
Large farm owned & opperated by peasants as a group.
Stalin's five-year plan.
impressive progress in heavy industry, the standard of living remained low, and consumer goods were scarce and poor in quality, agricultural collectives proved to be a disaster
Economic dependence
when less developed nations export raw materials and commodities to industrial nations and import manufactured goods, capital and technology
July 28, 1914
Austria declares war on Serbia
Treaty of Breast, civil war in Russia
followers of Emiliano Zapata who led a peasant revolt
Was an international communist organization founded in March of 1919 by Lenin, this thing wanted to overthrow the international Bourgeoisie and create a socialist state.
el alamein
general bernard montgomery stopped romme's advances in egypt
Israel and Turkey
multi party democratic systems (Kurds & Arabs faced restrictions)
part of serbia
Southwest African People's Organization
pooling of peasant lands
Weimar Republic
1919, democratic government
Kenyatta became the first prime minister of an independent Kenya
october 1944
aushwitz jews rebel
Lee Kwan Yew
Sing, Pm
british went across the english channel to get away from germans to safety
IRA attacked protestands and both sides turned to teroism
Salvador Dali
OPEC cut oil production and raised prices, cause inflation and slowed economic growth
Totalitarian State
Came from Soviet Union, a one-party dictatorship regulates every aspect of its citizens lives. and placed a censorship on books, art and music.
july 1945
1st atom bomb test
operation barbarossa
conquest of the soviet union
opposition to all war
ruled by Japanese for 36 years
enlighten rule
coral sea and midway island
us damaged
marshall plan
food and assistance to europe
Bharatiya Janata party, congress party ruled India until 1990's, wanted election, wanted to unite government and religion
july 1853
american ships sailed into tokyo bay commanded by matthew perry
berlin wall toppled
Ultimatum From Austria
avoid war and all anti-Austrian agitation must end, from Austria to Serbia
(1970's) relaxation of tensions, american and soviet leaders, ended after S.U invaded afgan. in 1979
panama canal opens
WWII begins
May 10, 1994
Nelson Mandela became South Africa's first president, marked a new beginning for South Africa
South Africa receive Southwest Africa as a mandate from the League of Nations
emperor of china (1926)
Movement to express African pride
Agriculture under Stalin
brought under control, forced peasant to give up land and live on state-owned, on collectives planned to provide tractors
Fourteen Points
Jan. 1918, list of his terms for resolving this and future wars
international monetary fund
Mustafa Kema, rules w/ iron hand
Sadat was assassinated by Muslim extremists
Protest forced the gov. to impose a state of emergency
Great Depression
1930's, global economic colapse
Saddam seized a disputed border region from Iran, Iraqi forces then pushed deeper into Iran, Iraq used superior weapons (poison gas), attacked international tankers and offshore oil fields, dragged on for 8 years, ending in stalemate
self governing nation
spain portugal and greens are undeveloped
FLN turned to guerrilla warfare to win freedom, France vs. Algeria
violent criminal syndicate defied government
March on Rome
1922, to demand the government changes, tens of thousands
Violence in Lebanon
Israel invaded south to clear out PLO, Syria occupied eastern Lebanon, Palestinian refugee camps were under fire (thousands died), un peacekeeping tried to help but withdrew after hundreds of French and American peacekeepers were killed in suicide bombings
Indian women
gained vote, education
secret police force organized by the communists to start a reign of terror
1950's & 1960's
western cultural influences increased
may 8th 1945
western democracies led by the us
Desbond Tutu
won the Nobel peace prize for nonviolent opposition to apartheid
Leopold Senghor
Senegal, skilled political organizers
Francisco Madero
early leader in the Mexican Revolution; in 1911 became president of Mexico; wanted land ownership and free, honest elections, two years later he was murdered, led to power struggles
july 1943
combined british and american amry and landed in italy, beat italy
Mandela's South Africa
whites (3/4) of land, black unemployment, and crime rate made unsafe
Shah Muhammad Reza Pahlavi had western backing but faced many opponents at home, pushed for modernization, used oil wealth to build roads and industries, supported by the army, and the westernized elite but opposition came from everywhere else
Israel became independent
Ruhr Valley
coal rich valley occupied by the French
workers wanted advances and required them to work kit off
Marcus Gravey
pan-africanist, set people thinking about the importance of African unity and culture
Dawes Plan
france withdrew it forces from the Ruhr, and american loans helped the german economy recover
Reza Khan
An ambitious army officer -> overthrew the shah, sets up own PAHLAVI DYNASTY. rused to modernize (builds factories roads and railroads and strengthens the army, adopts western alphabet, clothes, schools)
Yasir Arafat
headed the PLO
Mandela's Promises
better life for the blacks, rich country with a strong industrial base, introduced new programs from public housings to school lunches
economic miracle
rebuilt cities
mao zedong
one-party totalitarian state
African inherited
borders drawn by colonial powers, often cause immense problems, new nations were made of hostile groups forced to live together in a same country, borders also split people of the same ethnic group into two separate nations, worked to build a sense of unity
eastern capital
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov
adapted the name Lenin when he became a revolutionary,
Total war
channeling of a nations entire resources into a war effort
Ireland become independent
nationalized Suez Canal
deng xiaoping
Lous reil
led a revolt of Métis
large farm owned & operated by peasants as a group
destruction of a mosque in Ajodhya, BJP, Hindu came because it was on sacred group
After WWI, the Paris Peace conference convenes, W.E.B. DeBois organized the 1st Pan-African Congress
Twenty-one demands
fundamentalist Muslim group, gained power, restored order, but imposed an extreme form of Islam on Afghanistan, supported al-Qaeda
opium war
britsh vicotory over china, forced them to sign unequal treaties
an international terrorist group led by Saudi named Osama bin Laden
local people
nuclear threat
brought on by cold war + arms race
Maxim Gorky
Great russian writer, supported revolition and a friend of Lenin, opposed severity of war comm.
Leon Trotsky
assisted Lenin, committed Marxist revolutionary
Southern Rhodesia
Cecil Rhodes, settlers turned that into a British colony, whites made up 5% of populating but owned half the land, whites rejected any move to give power to the blacks
nazi-soviet pact
bound hitler and stalin, not to fight, divide up poland, base on mutual need
giant bussinesses organization japan resisted
berlin wall
(1961) wall that separated the two sectors of berlin, massive concrete barrier topped with barbed wire and patrolled by guards, ugly symbol of cold war
French Indochina
Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
stock market crash in NYC triggers global depression of the 1930's
winston churchill
British prime minister
family life
ideals remzined strong in west, west had fewer children, stayied in school longer, divorce rate climbed
1851-1868, reformed government and modernized army, new technology, and abolished slavery
Gorbachev Revolution
ended censorship
block of trad
Benito Juarez
la reforma, revised constitution to strip military and end special for church preside in 1861
delegates to the Praia Peace conference draft the Treaty of Versailles, blaming Germany for the war
spain + portugal, economically undeveloped
Middle eastern women
won voting rights and equality before the law
France and Britain sign an entente
vladmir putin president
focus of cold war tensions
Thabo Mbeki became president
Civil Disobedience
the refusal the obey unjust laws
Tensions led to renewed violence
Jiang Jieshi
(nationalist) Succeeded Sun (1925) energetic army officer, received military training in Japan and wanted to smash warlords and reunite China. 1926- march into north china, crushed warlords and advanced, capital Beijing, mid campaign-> strikes communism (threat to his power) 1927- Guomindang slaughters comm. members, thousands killed in Shanghai
Russo-Japanese war
Japan vs. Russian, Japan won
greater east asia co-prosperity sphere
anti-imperalism, mission was to help Asians escape western colonial rule
T.S. Elliot
1922- Baste Land, modern world as empty
Bolshevik Takeover
Nov, 1917- the red guards joined mutionous sailors from Russia fleets attacking provisional government, days later, Lenin overthrew gov., in petrograd gov meets at winter palace, the temp government failed, no struggle
dwight eisenhower
1942 command of anglo-american force in morocco and algeria
European Parliament
multinational body elected by citizens of the common market countries, limited
domino theory
cause and effect
United states send naval force to make Japan open its ports to trade
island inhabited by greeks and turks
in Himalayas, Hindu monarch decided to join India, and its Muslim majority wanted to be part of Pakistan
nonviolence and reverence for life
December 12, 1963
Kenya regained freedom
Indian families
children (economic growth)
Francois Mitterrand
encouraged growth of private bussiness
Pearl Harbor -> Japan bombs the shores of Hawaii
us after Spanish American war
Turkey and Egypt, lacked capital needed for development
Labour party
gained support among workers by promoting a gradual move towards socialism
The Bolsheviks, favored a Socialist state. The appealed to nationalism and favored expelling foreigners from Russia.
december 1941
pearl harbor
Rape of Nanjing
Dec. 13th 1937- Japan kills 100,000 people
general strike
(1926) strike by workers in many different industries at the same time, lasted nine days and involved three million
december 7 1941
pearl harbor
II Duce
"the leader"
Alfred Nobel
regrets military use of dynamite, sets up noble peace prize
Nicholas & Alexandra
czar, After Revolution of 1905 he failed to solve Russia's basic political, economic and social problems, this sparked eruptions. March 1917 the first of two revolutions toppled the Romanov dynasty and started more radical changes.
liberal democratic party
Superpower favoritism
supplied arms to governments it favored, (S.U disliked nations who pursued capitalism) boosted the power of the military, contributing to instability
Mexican war
1845, united states annexed Texas, us won and got half of Mexico
Marxism Predictions
industrial working class would rise spontaneously to overthrow capitalism
Middle east
region between Europe and china, Japan and southeast Asia
David Ben-Gurion
Israel's first prime minister
nikita denounced stalins power
Pan-African Congress meets
The officially state policy that there is no god.
Early 1960's
UN peacekeepers helped stop the fighting in Zaire
method of studying how the mind works and treating mental disorders
collective farms produced crops for export
forbidden to speak, publish or broadcast in their own language, nationalists continued to press for autonomy
British/French mandates
won complete independence as Lebanon, Syria and Jordan
counterrevolutionaries who were loyal to the czar.
great pproletarian
cultural revolution
Afrikaner National party won majority in a "white-only" parliament
March first movement
march 1, 1919 nonviolent protest of Japan, symbol of Jordan nationalists
china --> UN
liberated young woman, bobbed hair, short skirts, unchaperoned dates, cigs, and drank
communist party under Lenin
Frank Lloyd Wright
reflected belief that the function of a building should determine its form
Franklin Roosevelt
(1932) sense of energy, New Deal, Social Security
"draft" requires all young men to be ready for military or other services
cultural nationalism
pride in one's own culture
Asian tigers
privatized industries and foreign investments, 1990's role in textile,
Battle of Gallipoli
1915, allies sent to open Dardanelle Strait, Turks tied down Allies on beaches, 10 months later, Allies withdrew
Kwame's Actions
organized a radical political party, tried to win concessions from Britain
John Paul II visits poland
Ruhollah Khomeini
Iranian religious leader who denounced the government
francisco franco led a revolt
Penal colony
Panama canal
1914, backed panama against Colombia (1903)
Upper Canada
English (resented British power)
extreme nationalists
"Nkosi Sikelel iAfrika"
God Bless Africa
Rajiv Gandhi
grandson of Jawaharlal,
service industry
one that provides a service rather than a product
slovenia indepondence
Arabism- movement to set up free Arabs from foreign domination and reunite in own state
Fascist Party
1919 veterns + unhappy italians
Christian sect held the most power
former czarist center of government
Pakistan financial crisis
borrowed heavily from leaders such as the World Band and IMF
killed farm animals, destroyed tools, burn crops, grew enough to feed selves, famile (5.8 million died in ukraine)
march 1939
took over czechoslovakia (g)
"good neighbor policy", Ghandi, Salt movement, muslim league
school in germany, that influnced architecture by blending science and technology with design
ethnic group decided by modern borders among Turkey, Iraq and Iran, efforts to win autonomy led to repression
Ghana symbolism
gold coast (European interests in Africa) Ghana (linked the new nation with the region's African past)
Easter Rising
(1916)small irish group launched a revolt against british rule
new conflicts, India accused Pakistan of funding groups inside Kashmir who opposed Indian rule, tensions remain high
Saddam Hussein
leader of Iraq
Pros of Green Revolution
new seeds, chemical fertilizers and irrigation methods boosted output
Arab-Israeli War of 1948
uprooted 700,000 Arabs from Palestine, un set up shelters, poverty-stricken camps have become permanent homes
Egyptian Problems
economy could not keep pace with population, living in slums, miseries of urbanization
opposition to all war and disgust with the destruction
Gold coast won independence
Meiji restoration
1868-1912, studied west
Muslim Brotherhood
(1930's) fosters broad Islamic nationalism rejecting western cultures and denounced corruption in Egypt Gov.
diverse ethnic and religious groups
seized azenbajain
May Fourth Movement
may 4th 1919, student protests in beijing, boycotting japanese goods, a cultural and intellectual ferment to strengthen china. (key role- joined marches, campaighned to end arranged marriages and foot binding)
working class
India independence
Aletta Jacobs
Dutch, women's suffrage, Women's, international league for peace and freedom
hitler's secret police
Mussolini becomes II Duce, suppresses rival parties, mussled the press, rigged the elections and replace elected officials with fascist supporters, italy still remained a parliamentary monarchy
peoples rebublic of china
Guantanamo naval base
got in Platt amendment
east germany
soviet orbit
Arab League
promoted Arab solidarity in times of crisis and worked for common economic goals
International tensions
great powers expanded armies and navies
Iraq invades Iran
nazi's massacred some 6 million jews in this
African National Congress
political party (1912) worked through legal means protesting laws that restricted the freedom of black Africans, it had no effect on sa's white government
Mandela's slogan and policy, "let us build together"
PLO's in Lebanon
developed into an important force in the Palestinian refugee camps, they crossed intro Israel to attack civilian and military targets
Colonial expectations
African leaders would almost immediately transform authoritarian colonies into democratic nations
Mussolini becomes leader of Italy
war crimes
violating rules of war
Vojislav Kostunia
Serbia president after 2000
Great Purge
(1934), stalin cracked down on Old Bolsheviks, his net soon widened to target army heroes, industrial managers, writers and citizens, they were charged with a wide range of crimes, from plots to failure to not meeting production quotas
Munich Conference
september 1939, appeasement, caved into hitler's demands and then persuaded the czechs to sureencder
death of Rasputin
Jacques chira, conservative approach
simple white garment, boycott of Br. textiles urged them to wear this
First universal peace conference in Netherlands, set up Hague tribunal
agreement to end fighting
Concentration Camp
detention cneters for civilians considered enemies of the state
japan is in economic
lightining war
bomb airfields, factories, towns and cities
Bangladesh Struggles
to rise out of poverty, geography stands in the way, large population is crowded on a low lying coastal plain
Erich Maria Remarque
(1929) "All Quiet on th Western Front"
lily litvaik
financial hardship, money was needed, wealth in land rather than cash, heavy expense of maintaing households
End of Cold War
nations in western and eastern europe sought normal relations, communism fell from power in S.U, which broke up into seperate republics, warsaw pact disolved, NATO redefined its role
Saddam Hussein
brutally suppressed all critics and persecuted Kurds and Shiites
Haile Selassie
Ethiopian king
Mau Mau
guerrilla warfare burned farms and destroyed livestock, hoping to scare whites, attacked settlers and Africans who worked with the colonial rulers
deadlock where neither side is able to defeat the other
The largely Protestant northern counties remained under British rule
Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1928) every independent nation, promise to renounce war as an instrument of national policy
one-child per family rule
France and Russia form an alliance
commonwealth of nations
some former colonies that preserved their ties with britain
central powers ( Germany and Australia Hungary)
Lebanon finally had some order, PLO forced out of southern Lebanon, private armies disarm and the capital rebuilt
hitler engineered anschloss, forced nazis on australian cabinet
S.U tightened grib
germany approved unification
Cons of Apartheid
life of restrictions, clacks treated like foreigners, banned marriages between the races and set up segregated restaurants
powerful earthquakes shook western turkey, killing or injuring 10,000
Diaz resigned
John MacDonald
urged confederation our unity of providences
children of god
Khrushchev built nuclear missles
Nuremberg Laws
severe restrictions of jews, prohibited from marrying non-jews, attending or tteaching at german schools or universities, hlding government jobs, practicing law or medicine, or publising books
Jazz Age
pioneered by African american musicians who combined west with africa (Louis armstrong)
Rudyard Kipling
1900 popular writer
Stalin, "women's war"
councils of workers and soldiers, at first worked democratically within the government
island hopping
never staying on one island
Late 1990's
UN oil-for-food program
Battle of the Somme, 1 million soldiers killed, war remains deadlock
Simone de Beauvoir
(1949) analyzd the status of women in western society.
Red Army
Muhammad Ali-Jinnah
Muslim league leader, middle-class, studied law, 1st represented muslim intrest within the congress, later supported separate Muslim states
European introduction
new crops, technologies, cash economies, built roads railroads harbors and cities, exporting raw materials and cash crops helped pay for European rule
India first tested nuclear bomb
estonia, latvia, and lithunia gaine independence
Zionist Movement- Theodor Herzl
PLO Destruction
massacre of Israeli athletes at the 1972 Olympics, bombings, hijackings
Commonwealth of Australia
1901, helped colonies unite drew from both federal and prime minister
a Jewish student who opposed Rabin's peace policy assassinated the prime minister who had signed the Oslo accords
extreme nationalists
lend-lease act
1941 allowed him to sell war materials to any country
japan i ruin
PRI organized
banking and power famlies, Kawasaki
self-employed women's association, formed production, opened banks, provided education
island in the eastern Mediterranean, conflict back to ottoman times, island is partitioned
Western front
Germany swept thru Belgium to Paris
Great Purge
the killing of all the many people who were a part of the Old Bolsheviks
agreed to fight soviet communism not to interfer
Sigmund Freud
faith in reason, subconscious mind drives much human behavior
spanish republic
took over chruch lands and gave vote to women
Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
(exiled) condemned western influences and accused the shah of violating Islamic law, Muslim fundamentalist
extreme nationalism, glorified action, blind loyalty to the state, antidemocratic, aggressive foreign expansion.
Emilio agunald
battled American forces,
March 1, 1919
march first movement
spain monarchy dominated by upper class, catholic church and military
1957, artificial satelite
India's democratic constitution
justice, liberty, equality, fraternity
"Truth" communist party newspaper, it linked enemies at home to foreign agents seeking to restore power to the landowners and capitalists, this revived extreme nationalism
cover given up by urban women
January 30, 1948
Gandhi killed by Hindu extremists
japan seized manchuria
business slowed and unemployment rates rose
S.A first multiracial elections, Nelson Mandela won as new democratic S.A
Un Efforts
helped save millions from starvation in Biafra during Nigeria's civil war, responded to famine and other c rises that struck African nations
people of Native American and Europe
Japan trade
(import- oil) (export- steel)
territories administered by western powers
"Red Scare"
being scared of someone that immigrated to the us
august 12 1940
began bombing on souther coast
Dayton Accords
peace agreement Bosnia, Croatia, Serbia
F.W. de Klerk is appointed president
joined common market in 1973
northern italy
industries prospered
Spanish American war
Commodore Mathew Perry
letter from presiden, demanding that japan open its ports to diplomatic and commercial exchange
no god
separation of the races, all south Africans were registered by race, claimed that this would allow each race to develop its own culture, instead gave whites control over South Africa
wealthy peasants
Western control
owned industries and banks, provided capital and technology needed, principal market for exports
June 6, 1944
independent travel union, demanded political change
African National Congress set up to oppose white domination, organized marches,
japan major investor in china
horrible acts vs. innocent people
Lenin's death sets off power struggle, Sun Yixian dies, and Jiang Jieshi takes over
Namibia became independent
bands of citizen soldiers, who battled for control of billages and of Beirut
Ian Smith
led independence for Southern Rhodesian, accepted a negotiated settlement
Osip Mandelstam
jewish poet, imprisoned, tortured and exiled for composing a verse that was critical of Stalin
large, gas-filled balloons that bombed English coast by Germany
descended from Dutch settlers, demanded server new limits on blacks
eastern policy
Hitler becomes chancellor , withing a year he became master of germany
Nehru Dynasty
congress party dominated, BJP
revolt against civilization
legislature, one house elected and one house emperor elected
Collective security
system of group of nations act as on to preserve peace of all
Francisco Pancho Villa
hard-riding rebel from the north- fought for personal power but won the loyalty of his followers
UN Economic Sanctions
kept Iraq from selling oil on the world market and from importing most goods, goal was to stop Saddam Hussein from building chemical and nuclear weapons, but the sanctions hurt the Iraqi people
Great Purge, Long March
Mohandas Gandhi
turned to satyagraha
Bengal Nation
French nationalism
longed to regain position as Europe's leading power,
No-fly zones
areas over which Iraqi aircraft where not permitted to fly
Meiji constitution
September 1, 1939
nazi stormed poland and stalin storms east
Women during Apartheid
had to get permission from parents or husband as well as authorities in order to move from district to another
Algeria wins its freedom
Stalin's Propaganda
revived extreme nationalism, and radios blared into factories and billages, and in movies they heard about communist successes and the evils of capitalism
W.E.B DuBois
african american scholar and activist, organized 1st Pan-African congress, met in Paris
French socialists win power
Herbert Hoover
president during the G.D, government should not interfer
Negritude Movement
french speaking writers in w. africa & carribeans expressed pride in African roots (Leopold Sengnor)
jiang zemin new leader
Benazr Bhutto
1988, 1990
united states helped Israel while the soviet union gave aid to the Arabs
groups of merchant ships protected by warships
when settlers overthrew indigenous
Colossus of the north
united states
Marxist thinker, skillful speaker, architect of the Bolshevik Rev. murdered
Beirut was poised for return to its status as a leading economic center of the middle east
Vasily Kandinsky
India's education system
literacy rate climbed, boys were more likely to go to school
Bangladesh independence
Angola and Mozambique celebrated independence
OAU achievements
provided African nations with discussion and settlement, set up African Development Bank to control investment capital from foreign sources into development programs
Treaty of Portsmouth
1905 gained Korea as well as Manchuria
Turkey economy
expanded agriculture through increased irrigation and promoting industry, exported crops and manufactured good to Europe
operation sea lion
invasion of britain (g)
rosa robota
National Liberation Front
Hague Tribunal
world court
Balfour Declaration
pledged support for a Jewish national home in Palestine, deepened tensions, both claimed a historical right to the land

Deck Info