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Western Europe, 1945 to 1970


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Truman Doctrine
U.S. would provide money to countries that claimed they were threatened by communist expansion.
"Prague spring"
time of great reforms in Czechoslovakia
State of Israel
March 1948, Truman approved the concept of an independent Jewish state in Palestine. May 14, 1948, the Palestinian Jews acted and proclaimed the state of Israel
Cuban Missile Crisis
U.S. intelligence discovered that a Soviet fleet carrying missiles was heading to Cuba, President Kennedy decided to blockade Cuba and prevent fleet from reaching its destination. Khruxhchev agreed to turn back the fleet if Kennedy pledged not to invade Cuba.
African National Congress
group of intellectuals whose goal was to gain eco. and political reforms, including full equality for educated Africans, within the framework of the existing system, but after the arrest of Mandela, members of ANC called for armed resistance to the white gov.
Betty Friedan
"The Feminine Mystique"---> middle class women living a meaningless life (criticism was that she only represented the middle class women), created NOW
Great Leap Forward
combined collective farms into "people's communes" in China
"permissive society"
sexual revolution and drug culture
"consumer society"
consumerism is insatianable (Ex: America)---> working class rejected this
objected the division of India, thought it would bring violence
Hungarian Uprising
Nagy declared hungary's independence on November 1, 1956. The red army came in and made Kadar leader
Sputnik I
the first space satelite, launched by Soviet Union
created a common market for coal and steel products among 6 nations (NO UNITED STATES) It got rid of trade barriers and tariffs
Marshall Plan
(European Recovery Plan) intended to rebuild properity and stability, included $13 billion for the eco. recovery of war-torn Europe
Six-Day War
Egypt (led by Nassar) imposed a blockade against Israeli shipping. Israel launched preemptive air strikes against Egypt and several of its Arab neighbors, israeli warplanes bombed 17 Egyptian airfields and wiped out most of the egyptian air force, israeli armies broke the blickade and occuped the Sinai pen, others seized jordanian territory , occupied all of Jerusalem and attacked Syrian military positions. Israel tripled the size of its territory and defeated Nassar's troops
Arab League
sympathy for the idea of Arab unity led to the Arab League (1945)
Konrad Adenauer
leader of West Germany that performed an "economic miracle"
Simon de Beauvoir
"The Second Sex"---> stated that the only reason why women were seen as inferior was because of their lack of sexual organs
Mao Zedong
led the communists in North China
"Economic miracle"
the gross national product of West Germany passed that of prewar Germany, real wages doubled, work hours were cut by 20% and unemployment fell to only 0.4%
Vietnam War
N.Vietnam (soviet aided) vs. S.Vietnam (aided by US) S.Vietnam failed against communist troops
Martin Luther King
civil rights leader who was the leader of the SCLC and led the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom (loved Gandhi)
Great Proletarian Cultural revolution
lauched by Mao in hopes of keeping a revolutionary fervor in China, but FAILED
Indian National Congress
supported mostly hindu
5 year plan, collective agriculture, secret police and military forces---> European satilite states tried to practice the policies of Stalin
Bay of Pigs
(1961) American-supported attempt to invade Cuba via the Bay of Pigs and overthrow Castro's regime ending in failure
American policy against Soviet Union, advocated by Kennan
women's liberation movement
women fight for equal wages with men and more legal rights
U.S. and Soviet Union
Christian Democratic Parties
interested in democracy and economic reforms and helped achieve Europe's economic restoration
Suez Crisis
Nasser nationalized the Suez Canal on July 26, 1956 and Britain lost the Suez Canal in the end
Berlin Blockade
Soviet blockade of W. Berlin that allowed neither trucks nor trains to enter the three western zones of Berlin to secure eco. control and halt the creation of a separate W. German state.
Berlin Wall
wall seperating E. and W. Berlin created by E. German gov.
"massive retaliation"
policy adopted by Eisenhower which advocated the full use of american nuclear bombs to counteract Soviet action
Domino Theory
theory: if the communists succeded in Vietnam, all other countries in Asia freeing themselves from colonial domination would fall, like dominoes to communism.
also known as the Common Market, it came after the ECSC and eliminated custom barriers and created a large free-trade area that was protected from the rest of the world with a protective tariff
(Southeast Asia Treaty Org.) U.S., Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand to stem Soviet agression in E.
student protests
caused because of rising school enrollment, different perspectives from lower class, frustration with the government (Vietnam war), and frustration over consumerism---> in France, revolt agains de Gaulle, in West Berlin, do sit-in against Vietnam war, and in US Colombia leads schools in revolution
displaced persons
people with no homes after WWII
(Council for Mutual Eco. Assisitance) eco. cooperation of E. European states
birth-control pill
gave women freedom in sexual behavior
(North Atlantic Treaty Org.) military alliance formed in April 1949 when Belgium, Britain, Denmark, France, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, and portugal signed a peace treaty with U.S. and Canada. All powers agreed to provide mutual assistance if any one was attacked.
Charles de Gaulle's Fifth Republic
gave more power to the President in France
guerilla movement led by the PLO leader Yasir Arafat, began to launch terrorist attacks on israeli territory
(Palestine Liberation Org.) believed only the palestinian peoples had the right to form a state in Palestine.
"war on poverty"
Johnson's plan to fight poverty in the US with food stamps and the new Job Corps
"freedom" (Mau-Mau violence in Kenya)
Korean War
the Democratic People's Republic (supported by Soviet Union) vs. the Republic of Korea (supported by U.S.) June 25, 1950, N.Korean troops invaded S. Korea. U.S. intervened because they saw it as another act of communist aggression.
the "thawing" of the Cold War
"orgy of blood"
stated by Gandhi which meant that if India was split into India and Pakistan, then there would be violence
(the Central Treaty Org.)Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, G.B., and U.S. intended to prevent Soviet Union from expanding at the expense of its southern neighbors.
leader of Soviet Union after Stalin
welfare state
Britain became one of these because they had the National Insurance Act and National Health Service Act and nationalized the Bank of England

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