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vietnam era yo


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ho chi minh
led a group of communists against the french in the 1930s. During wwII, him and other independence movements (nationalists) founded the vietminh to fight against the japanese. the french surrendered to him which left the vietnam question to the international community. leader of north vietnam that was communist. __(his name)__ trail and supported the vietcong beginning in 1959 and supplied arms via a network of paths along the borders of vietnam, laos, and cambodia.
ngo dinh diem
leader of non communist south vietnam. ruled the south as a dictator. refused to take part in elections in 1956 for fear of the communists winning. was supported by eisenhower. popularity declined, so ordered all villagers moved to protected areas. killed buddhists and was overthrown by a us supported coup and was assassinated.
dwight eisenhower
pledges military aid and training to the south vietnamese. \"sink or swim with ngo dinh diem\"
john kennedy administration
increased financial aid to diem and had sent 16000 us military. supported a coup that overthrew diem.
viet minh
communists and nationalists rejoined as the vietminh to fight the french. used guerilla tactics to keep the french in the cities and defeated the french.
geneva accords
after france\'s defeat, _________ established that vietnam was to be divided at the 17th. north=communist under ho. south=non communist under ngo dinh diem. elections were to held in 1956 to pursue possible reunification
domino theory
president dwight eisenhower believed if one country in southeast asia would fall to communism, they all would. would be the major justification for american foreign policy in the region
tonkin gulf resolution
despite the questions about the \"attacks\" on the maddox and turner joy, johnson went to congress and congress authorized him to send us troops into vietnam without limits. operation rolling thunder began in feb 1965 with the bombing of north vietnam. by june, more than 50,000 americans were actively fighting.
operation rolling thunder
began in feb 1965 with the bombing of north vietnam. by june, more than 50,000 americans were actively fighting.
lyndon johnson
supported containment and increased us involvement. and was advised to send thousands of soldiers to vietnam. in 1965, 61% of americans supported the us policy in vietnam. by the end of 1965 there were more than 180,000 americans in vietnam. general westmoreland requested more troops and by 1967, the number of us troops increased to nearly 400,000
new left
\"new\" in opposition to the \"old left\" of the 1930s that was associated with socialism. demanded sweeping changes in society and an end to the war.
antiwar protests
sds marches on washington. april 1965 drew 20,000 and november 1965 drew 30,000. in feb 1966, johnson changed deferment rules to require good academic standing. campuses around the country erupted in protest. reasons for protest: vietnam was a civil war. south vietnamese gov. was no better than the communists. united states could not police the entire world. saw war as morally unjust
those who felt that us should unleash greater military force to win the war
those who opposed the war and believed that the us should withdraw
tet offensive
jan 30 was the beginning of the viet new year. there had been an unofficial ceasefire during the tet for previous years. there was a surprise attack. many coffins were brought into towns for funerals and contained weapons and carried by vietcong agents. vietcong launched an attack on 10 towns in south viet and 12 us air bases. battles lasted for a month before us and south viet regained control of the cities. changed public opinion. increased credibility gap. and walter cronkite said they lost america.
election of 1968
lbg announced he would not seek re election after barely winning to a random. vice president hubert humphrey declared his candidacy. robert kennedy sensed weakness in lbj and declared his candidacy.
robert kennedy
had become a strong candidate with minorities and urban democrats. mccarthy had the support of college students while humphrey had the democratic party establishment. neck and neck with mccarthy to see who would enter the convention as humphrey\'s main challenger. won the california primary on june 4. but was assassinated after giving a victory speech at the ambassador hotel in la. assassin was a palestinian immigrant named sirhan sirhan who was angry over rfk\'s support of israel.
1968 democratic convention
in chicago. race for the nomination came down to eugene mccarthy and humphrey. humphrey had already been chosen by the party establishment, which controlled the nomination process at that time. 10,000 antiwar protesters arrived in chicago. if mccarthy couldnt be the nomimee, they wanted the democrats to adopt an antiwar platform. mayor richard daley mobilized 12,000 police and national guard to maintain law and order. protesters marched on the convention and were attacked by the police. they began chanting \"the whole world is watching\". protest leaders were arrested and tried, becoming known as the \"chicago eight\". images of the democrats as a party of disorder became etched in people\'s minds
richard nixon
in 1968, announced his candidacy and easily won the republican nomination. he appealed to conservatives by criticizing the warren court. claimed a \"secret plan\" to end the war in vietnam. won 43.2% of the popular vote in 1968 over humphrey and wallace.
george wallace
alabama governor entered the race as the american independent party candidate. was called the \"white backlash\" candidate. appeals to segregationists. apealed to northern white working class voters disgusted with riots and antiwar protests.
kissingers called for the gradual withdrawal of us troops in order for the south vietnamese to take a more active combat role. in 1968, the first 60,000 troops were withdrawn. over the next 3 years, the number of troops dropped from more than 500,000 to less than 25,000.
in 1969, nixon ordered secret bombing raids of _________. on april 30, 1970 nixon announced that the us troops had invaded _________ to clear out north vietnamese and vietcong supply centers which sparked widespread antiwar protests. lead to bombings of vietnam and laos and it was escalated again in response to a north vietnamese offensive.
paris accords
provisions included a cease fire and release of several hundred american prisoner of wars by the north vietnamese. provisions didnt include the withdrawal of north vietnamese troops from the south or the abandonment of the communist commitment to a reunified vietnam.
pentagon papers
given to the press by defense department worker daniel ellsberg in june 1971. 7,000 page document written in 1967-1968 that showed that war plans had been drawn up even as lbj said he would not send troops to vietnam. also showed that there was never any plan to end the war. confirmed people\'s distrust of the gov.
war powers act
passed by congress to curb the president\'s war making powers. president must inform congress within 48 hours of sending forces into a hostile area without a declaration of war. troops may remain there no longer than 90 days, unless congress approves or declares war.
public skepticism and cynicism
americans became suspicious of a gov. that could provide misleading info or conceal many activities. vietnam and watergate destroyed optimism and faith in gov. from the eisenhower and kennedy years.
movement made up of mostly white, middle class youths who had grown disillusioned with the war in vietnam and social injustices in the 1960s. turned their backs on traditional america and tried to establish a whole new society based on peace and love. leader was timothy leary. \"tune in, turn on, drop out\". hippies.
summer of love
woodstock, three day music festival attended by 400,000 people on a farm in upstate new york. peace and well organized, and attended by some of the major musicians of the day.
new federalism
nixon wanted to decrease the size and influence of the federal gov. believed that lbj\'s great society gave the gov too much responsibility. revenue sharing: nixon proposed to give more financial freedom to state governments. state and local could spend federal dollars however they saw fit, with certain limitations.
family assistance plan (fap)
nixon wanted to overhaul welfare. every family of four with no outside income would receive a federal payment of $1,600 a year, with a provision to earn up $4000 more. unemployed participants would have to take job training and accept any reasonable work offered them. bill defeated in the senate.
fighting stagflation
between 1967 and 1973 the us faced high inflation and high unemployment. causes: high inflation from lbj\'s deficit spending on vietnam and the great society. increased job competition from women and baby boomers caused high unemployment. high prices on oil. attempted fixes: to reverse deficit spending, nixon attempted to raise taxes and cut the budget, but had those rejected by congress. nixon failed to urge the federal reserve to raise interest rates. in aug 1971, nixon turned to price and wage controls to stop inflation. froze worker\'s wages and businesses\' prices for 90 days. inflation slowed by the recession continued.
nixon doctrine
redefinition of america\'s role in southeast asia and the rest of the developing nations. u.s. would no longer step in militarily to protect its asian allies from communist threats. would still continue to provide weapons and financial aid.
policy of easing cold war tensions. politically, nixon and kissinger believed in a \"balance of power\" approach to the cold war. economically, they could try to slow down the arms race, plus open up new markets in china and the soviet union.

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