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usa- history


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Christopher Columbus
- 4 trips; 1492-1504
- in search of a shorter route to the West Indies,
- financed by Queen Isabella and Kind Philip,

Roanoke Colony
- Led by Ralph Lane
- 2 attempts: 1585, 1587
- a military venture
- "The Lost Colony"- 1590-the colony was abandoned, its fate is unknown

Jamestown Settlement
- Supported by King James 1,
- Established in 1607, the first successful settlement, thanks to Captain John Smith who force settlers to plant food to feed themselves,
majority died in the first 3 years- malaria, starvation, Indians

John Rolfe
1613- first successful plantation of tobacco,
- 1609-1614- war with Indians
- he saved Pocahontas and married her

-Protestants, wanted to separate from the Church of England,wanted to purify it
- to eliminate all sacraments , reject all rituals and priestly hierarchy
- grace was the will of God

Plymouth Colony
-1st Puritan Colony in North America
- 1620, 140 people- Pilgrims, were escaping religious persecution
- established by Pilgrims- separatists who did not believe in reforming the Church

Mayflower Compact
- Nov.11, 1620, signed on board the Mayflower
- declared to obey the same laws and to cooperate,
- first written agreement in America

Roger Williams
- American religious leader,theologian, pastor
- came to Mss Bay colony in 1631
- close to Indians, learned their languages,
- believed in separation of Church and State
- 1636- found a new colony, Rhode Island,where all religions were to be tolerated
- supported religious freedom

The Maryland Toleration Act
1649, - ensured equal treatment for all Christians
- a radical Protestant group, hard-working, moral people, very tolerant, pacifists(refused to serve in military)
- no social distinctions, friends,
anyone could preach, even women

cities settled by Quakers
New Jersey

Pequot War
- 1634-1638, armed conflict between the Pequots and the Mohicans, Amaricans were attacked,
- colonists surrounded the Pequot fort and burned it down
King Philip's War
- one of the bloodiest war in American history(4000Ind.,2000settlers died)
- unclear details-the murder of John Sassamon wa blamed on King Philip)
-effects: increased interest from English gov.

Salem witch trials
- social circumstances:stress and tension,
- 20 people killed, 156 accused,
- mass hysteria

The Enlightenment
- intellectual and philosophical movement focused on human mind,
- emphasis on rationalism,
- human rights,
- John Locke,created the theory of liberalism, studied connections among society
- Liberty
- Republicanism

Great Awakening
-1734-1745, social and religious movement; series of religious revivals,
- hels that all people were born sinners
- Primary figures: Jonathan Edwards, George Whitefield,
- organised to encourage religious individualism and to increase religious toleration

Causes of rebelion in colonies
- King George III wanted to maintain the colonies by military force-the Prime Minister(George Greenville) passed 4 taxes to help maintain this army----> Sons of Liberty protested against the controll of the British government.
The French and Indian War
1754-1663 (Treaty of Paris)

war for domination in America

Sugar Act
- 1764
- established 3% tax on molasses
- bureaucratic control
- harsh punishment for smuggling

Currency Act
- 1764
- forbade the issuing of colonial currency
- all taxes were to be paid with hard money

Quartering Act
- 1765
- colonists had to provide housing for troops in public buildings
Stamp Act
- 1765
- the first direct tax on the American people,
- placed a tax on court documents, papers used in harbors, college diplomas, contracts, leases, newspapers...

Stamp Act- resistance
- a coalition of elite leaders and common people worked to overturn these laws;
- protest in every colony by both rich and poor
- the Stamp Act was finally repealed a year later

Townshend duties
- 1767 Parliament passed The Townshend Revenue Act
- imposed taxes on manufactured goods imported from England and not manufactured in America: window panes, paint, tea, paper
- it started the protest, which led to the Boston Massacre,
- they claimed that the British can't tax them without representation in the Parliament

Boston Massacre
- 5 March, 1770
- argument between young boys and British army officers, they opened fire and killed 5 people
- they were later acquitted (not deliberate act of violence)

Boston Tea Party
- 1773- the Tea Act- put a tax on the tea imported to America
- 50 men went on board the ship carrying tea and dumped the tea into the Boston Harbor

The "Intorelable Acts";

the "Coercion Acts

- 1774
- Britain's response to Boston Tea Party
1.Boston Port Bill-closed the port of Boston until they paid for the tea
2.Mss Government Act- no hall meeting without permission of the Governor
3.Administration and Justice Act- any soldier accused of a crime could be sent to Britain for a "fair" trial
4.Quartering Act
5.Quebec Act- is assigned to Quebec the Ohio region, which the colonists wanted

First Continental Congress
-called in response to the Intolerable Acts
-every colony sent delegates(except Georgia)
-foundation of the first national government
-4 objectives:
1.passive resistance to the Intolerable Acts
2.boycott on trade with England
3.adopted a Declaration of Rights
4.Sent petitions to King George III

War of Independence

Battles of Lexington and Concord
- 1775
- First battles of the war of independence
- general thomas Gage received orders from England to action against the colonists

Second continental Congress
- 1775 May
- met in Philadelphia, discussed about war
1.created a Continental Army with George Washington as a general
2.decided to attack Canada
3.adopted the Declaration of Independence
4.making Olive Branch petition-to the king
5.adopted Articles of Confederation forming a weak national government

Declaration of Independence
- 4.07.1776
- written by T.Jefferson (B.Franklin,John Adams)
- borrowed ideas from constitutionalism,republicanism,Enlightenment
- emphasis on human equality
- Gov.should represent the people and protect their rights

Decisive battles during War of Independence
- Battle of Trenton- 26.12.1776
- Battle of Saratoga- 7.10.1777 (encouraged France to support the war)
- Battle of Yorktown- 28.09.-19.10.1781
- Treaty of Paris- 3.09.1783 (end)

Mss Bay Colony
- 4 March 1629, established by group of London merchants, supported by king Charles I
- John Winthrop, the Governor of the Colony,established a religiously orientated oligarchy; many religious restrictions, no leisure time, going to Church
- the first democratic institution in America- the town meeting, every member had a voice

state of colonies after winning independence
- weak central government(The Articles of Confederation), no taxes,little money,small army,no judicial system
- less national unity (no enemy)
- in debt after the war, economic crisis

- ratified by Congress in 1787, came into affect in 1789
- the oldest and the shortest written constitution in the world
1.Separation of powers (executive,legislative,judical),each checks others
2.Federalism (system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and political units)
3.Founders wanted to create republic with a system of representation

War of 1812
- Second war with England,

- British restrictions on trade
- British support of Indian tribes

- 1814-Jackson defeated Indians and destroyed their power, east of the Mississippi
- inspired national feeling and patriotism (after the battle of New Orleans,Andrew Jackson became a national hero, the Star-Spangled Banner was written)

1814- the Treaty of Ghent (Belgium), stopped protecting Indians

Immigration- reasons
1. easy and cheap
2. promise of work and cheap land
3. food shortages in Europe
4. high taxes in Europe
5. no censorship,no class distincions, no political police

Andrew Jackson
- a war hero after the battle of New Orleans during the war of 1812,
- the 7th president o the US
- Jacksonian democracy- a political philosophy focused on extending voting rights; against the monopoly of government,
- 1830- signed the Indian Removal Act- 46,000 people were relocated west of the Mississippi River

Trail of Tears
- 1838
- relocation of 17,000 Cherokees on a 800-mile journey from Georgia to Oklahoma. 4,000 die from starvation
- invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney (1793)increased the production of cotton ---> more slaves needed,
- slavery was part of southern culture and economy
Antebellum slavery
-5%- urban and/or domestic skilled
-95%- rural and/or agricultural
-15%- lived in large, rural slave communities of 50-1000 people
-most lived on small to midsize plantations within 20-50 other slaves

pro-slavery arguments
-slavery enabled the founding of the American Republic
-comparisons to great slave-holding cultures from the past

-Paul supported it
-Christ never spoke out against it
-The Curse of Ham
"God's chosen people" were slavesholders

causes of the Civil War

-slavery-Abolitionists wanted to abolish slavery; Lincoln wanted to limit the spread of slavery to new states

-economic-two competing industries. Tariff battle, the South needed low tariffs

-political-Representation in Congress. New slave-free states would disturb the balance of power.

-social- North sees the South as a backward aristocratic country, South sees the North as corrupt immigrant urban.

-what created larger tension:
1."Uncle Tom'Cabin"- H.B.Stowe wrote a novel about the life in the South
2.Compromise of 1850- 5 bills
3.Fugitive Slave Act-1850, forced Northerners to return blacks to South
4.Election of 1860- South Carolina threatens and does secede after Lincoln(Republican) elected.

7 of the slave holding states decided to secess after Lincoln's elections.
American Civil War

North: the Union
the Anaconda strategy- to blockade the entire South.

South: Confederates
a defensive posture, holding its ground in the South

The North
- The Union
-industrialized (better railroad system)
-larger population(larger army)-23mln
-had a navy(able to enforce a blockade)
-had international support
-strong political leader- Abraham Lincoln

The South
-The Confederacy
-rural(dependent on cotton for trade)
-motivated-fighting for survival,familiar terrain, friendly civilians
-poor political system-chaotic, no centralized gov.
-horrible leadership by Jafferson Davis
-geographic advantage-difficult terrain to conquer

Emancipation Proclamation
-A.Lincoln declared slaves free
-didn't immediately end slavery or free any slaves

Battle of Fort Sumter
-Charleston harbor
-march-Lincoln tried to resupply the fort(federal fort)
-Confederates wanted to prevent this and attaccked Ft.Sumter-12.04.1681----->first shots of the Civil War

-First year of the war
-11 secessionists states proclaimed the Confederate States of America, Richmond as their nation's capital. Elected Jefferson Davis as their president.
Battle of Antietam
-gave Lincoln the victory needed to release the Emancipation Proclamation
Battle of Gettysburg
-the largest number of casualties in the Civil War, the most decisive battle, in favour of the Union
The Gettysburg Address
-4 months after the battle A.Lincoln gave one of the most famous speeches in US history. He commemorated the fallen soldiers and defined the purpose of the Civil War.
end of the Civil War
-9.04.1865, in the Appomattox Court House, Gen.Lee and Gen.Grant surrendered
North Generals

South Generals
-Jefferson Davis

aftermath and consequences (Civil War)
-total military casualties-620,000men and 1 mln horses
-13,14,15 Amendmends
-war destroyed the slaveholding class,
-forming more centralized national government
-emancipation of 4mln slaves

13th Amendment
-abolished slavery
-otlawed "involuntary servitude"

14th Amendment
-guaranteed citizenship to everyone born in the U.S.
15th Amendment
-right to vote regardless of race and color`
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Freedmen's Bureau
-created in 1865 by A.Lincoln to provide freed slaves with food, housing, education and work.
-source of political conflict. Republicans claimed it was too weak to help blacks,for the Democrats it was too intrusive.
-in 1865 it gave confiscated land to the freed slaves.

Presidential Reconstruction
-was an attempt of President Andrew Johnson to reconstruct
the south according to his own opinions and without consultation with Congress

Johnson's plan:
1.The states had to ratify the 13th Amendment abolishing slavery
2.nothing was done to preserve the rights of former slaves
3.white southerners were offered amnesty and restoration of all property

Black Codes
-1865-1866- unofficial laws enacted by the Andrew Johnson's government, limiting the basic human rights and civil liberties of blacks.

-the police were allowed to arrest any black man for vagrancy;
-blacks worked for low wages and couldn't fight for their rights in court;
-forbidden possession and use of weapons;
-children could have been taken away from families to be apprenticed in nearby farms

Congressional Reconstruction
-1866-70= radical reconstruction
-a partly successful attempt of Radical Republicans
who wanted to reconstruct the south more radically; they believed that blacks should also have the right to vote

Two Acts(1867):
1.First Reconstructive Act- reduced the southern states to the status of territories and divided the South into five military districts directly controlled by the US Army.
2.Second Reconstructive Act- established the procedures to enforce(support) African-American suffrage(right to vote).

Racial violence
-protest against radical reconstruction;
-Ku Klux Klan;
-popularization of lynching in the South- 2,000 blacks were killed by mobs.

Ku Klux Klan
-a secret organization dedicated to the intimidation blacks and the overthrow of Radical Reconstruction
-used acts of terrorism-including murder, lynching, arson, rape

Plessy vs Ferguson
-Plessy was black and traveled in wagon for whites, was arrested, he lost in court
-Supreme Court decision that established the legality of racial segregation;
-"separate but equal laws"-Jim Crow laws

"Jim Crow" Laws
-local laws in the United States enacted between 1876 and 1965
-legalized segregation between blacks and whites

Myth of the Wild West
Rise of Big business
Robber Barons
John Rockefeller
Andrew Carnegie
1 WW. decisions
Wilson's 14 Points
4 themes
18th amendment
banning the sale of alcohol


19th amendment

gave women right to vote

Temperance movement
Women's suffrage
The Roaring 20s

economy and technology

automobiles- ford
more jobs, higher wages

The Roaring 20s


Jazz age
red scare
spectator sports
rise of KKK

Spectator sports
boxing- j.dempsey
baseball- babe ruth

Great depression

reasons and effects

The First New Deal


The Second New Deal


Pearl Harbor
important battles 2WW
-of Coral Sea-may 42 (air)
-of Midway Isl-june 42
-D-Day- Normandy landing-6.06.44
-of the Bulge-16.12.44

Yalta Conference
Manhattan Project
making the atomic bomb

Fermi and Oppenheimer


Hiroshima and Nagasaki
6, 9.08.45

2.09.45- Japan surrenders

the Cold War

political conflict, military tension, economic competition between USA and Soviet Union

Truman doctrine
policy of Truman

US would support Greece and Turkey to protect them against Soviets

Marshall plan
the european recovery plan, to rebuild Europe after 2WW


North Atlantic Treaty Organization

1 peacetime alliance with Europe

Berlin Blockade
Korean War
House of Un-American Committee
to eliminate communist influences
making a public accusations
Space race
masive retaliation
using nuclear weapon in response to Soviet aggression
Brown vs. Topeka Board of Education

segragation at chools was a violation of the 14th amendment

Little Rock
Montgomery Bus Boycott

Rosa Parks...

Martin Luther King
leader of Southern Christian Leadership Conference
Greensboro Sit-ins

non-violent protest

Freedom rides
4.may 61

test whether southern states would allow desegregated buses

Birmingham campaign

cameras broadcast the violence all over America

March on Washington

I have a dream

malcolm X
black nationalism
member of the nation of islam
black power
newton, seale

to protect from racism
60- Black Panthers

cultural distinctiveness

race riots

Bay of pigs invasion

cuban missile crisis
johnson's great society
countercultural movement

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