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Forensics Exam One


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What is Forensic Science?
The application of science to law.
Who was Mathieu Orfila?
The father of toxicology.
Who was Alphonse Bertillon?
He made up the first personal id program in which a series of measurements were made and recorded
Who was Francis Galton?
He discovered fingerprints and came up with a way to classify them.
Who was Leone Lattes?
He discovered a simple way to determine the blood type of a blood stain.
Who was Calvin Goddard?
He came up with the comparison mircoscope and used it for bullet examination.
Who was Albert S. Osborn?
He wrote about document examining.
Who was Walter C. McCrone?
He was a leading microscopist and a great teacher
Who was Hans Gross?
He discovered the use of forensics to criminal justice
Who was Edmond Locard?
He had the "Locard Exchange Principle" which stated the exchange of materials between two objects that occurs whenever two objects come into contact with one another
When did the FBI organize the first crime lab?
Where/when was the first crime lab opened (in the US)?
1923 in the LA police department.
What are the basic services provided by a full service lab?
Physical Science Unit, biology unit, firearms unit, document examination unit, and photography unit
What does the physical science unit do?
Applies principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence.
What does the biology unit do?
Apply their knowledge to bloodstains and DNA profiling
What are the optional services provided by a full service lab? (5)
A toxicology unit, a latent finger pring unit, a polygraph unit, a voiceprint analysis unit, and an evidence collection unit
What is the "Frye standard"?
This is the standard for accepting a certain proceedure as to if it is "generally accepted" throughout the scientific community.
What is the flaw of the "Frye standard"?
The flaw in this standard is that it does not allow for new processes to take hold
What are the "Federal Rules of Evidence"?
According to this standard it is the job of the trail judge to decide if expert testimony rests on a reliable foundation
What are some other forensic services? (6)
Forensic pathology, forensic anthropology, forensic entomology, forensic psychiatry, forensic ontology, and forensic engineering

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