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ge and westinghouse would:

rca would

at&t would

-manufacture radio equipment
-sell it
-build transmitters

the focus of the cross licensing plan between rca, ge, westinghouse, and at&t was based on
point to point communication
these worked well until the idea of braodcasting began to emerge...
new patent pools
led to the eventual dissolving of the just agreed to cross-licensing agreements
-and the alignment of the patent holders into two rival groups
new patent pools
the two rival groups of patent pools were...
-telephone group (at&t, western electric)
-radio group (ge, rca, westinghouse)
radio broadcasting idea grew in the
-thousands of hobbyists were trained in radio during the war
-technological improvements made during the war gave radio better reception
-business interests began to realize that broadcasting might make money

... all have to do with

the growth of the idea of radio broadcasting
what was the first radio station called
a westinghouse engineer that began experimental broadcasts in pittsburgh with kdka
frank conrad
westinghouse, rca, ge, and at&t started
experimental stations
at the beginning of 1922, there were -- stations

at the end of 1922 there were - stations



--- became a major headache
credited with putting the first licensed station on the air
who ran advertisements on kdka
horne's department store
radio stations used this to stimulate sales of its owner's products
davis' business model
davis ordered conrad to have a fully operational station on the air in time for the
upcoming national election
november 2, 1920-
kdka on the air
-used radio waves
-sent out non coded signals
-continuous scheduled program service
-intended to be received by the general public
-licensed by the government

between 1920 and 1927, radio grew from --- to a ---
major industry
was started on weaf in 1922, soon other stations followed
commercial advertising
ten minute presentation on august 20, 1922...
toll broadcasting
spoke about the queensboro corporations hawthrone court

how much was the toll

mr. blackwell

50 dollars

interconnected using att long distance lines
flagship weaf (wnbc)
interconnected using western union telegraph lines
flagship wjz (wabc)
had superior interconnected quality, but struggled to fill program schedules with the toll broadcasting model
telephone group
had a better grasp of the operation issues unique to broadcasting particularly in the area of developing programming
radio group
started nbc in 1926
david sarnoff
began network broadcasting overseeing 2 networks
nbc based on telephone group
nbc based on radio group
formed in q1927 by william s paley
made key assumptions:
-the radio spectrum was a national resource. individuals could not own frequencies.
-licensees would have to operate in the public interest
-government censorship was forbidden

the radio act of 1927
congress established a teporary 5 member commission to
regulate broadcasting in 1927
the --- was formed parly to solve the growing interference problems.
-was superseded by the ---
federal radio commission

-federal communications act of 1934

a permanent body established to oversee regulation of wireless and wired communication, was established
became the number 1 source of home entertainment
who unveiled fm
edwin armstrong
sounds better and has less static than am
decided not to support the new innovation of fm. wanted to focus on television instead
david sarnoff
this halted the development of fm
world war two
changes the fm band
radio network programs were primarily --- and --- programs
this would be considered racist today, was a huge hit starting in 1929
amos n' andy
this was the author of the dramatic show known as war of the worlds
hg wells
this was the author of a dramatic show in 1938 known as mercury theatre of the air
orson welles
may 6, 1937. herbert morrison, wls, chicago, hindenburg disaster was an early example of
on the spot news coverage
1938- mutual complains to fcc that it is at a --- ---.

--- --- investigation begins

competitive disadvantage

chain broadcasting

forced to eliminate the network option plan which had given the networks control of the affiliate programming during the fcc report on chain broadcasting in 1941
cbs and nbc
ordert to divest itself of one of its networks under a new duopoly rule which limiting network ownership to one station percity
network/affiliate contracts were limited to
3 years
affiliates were give the right to
reject network programs
networks were given the right to offer rejected programs to
nonaffiliated stations
networks were prohibited from controlling
affiliate advertising rates
early television experiments involved one of two types of scansion:
-1884 paul nipkow's scanning disk
-early 1900s e.e. fournier does additional experiments.
-1925 c.f. jenkins, transmits movies using radio waves.
-1926 james baird demonstrates first true live television picture
-1929 jenkins and baird begin a
mechanical scansion
vladimir k zworykin demonstrates first all- electric television system using and
zworykin builds television receiver using a form of a cathode ray tube called a
formed an electronic research laboratory in camden, nj in 1930
-designed an all electronic system on paper while still a high school students
-files a patent application for his system
-performs a demonstration for financial backers of the camera used called the image-dissector camera
-holds substantial numb
-signs on experimental station w2xf, new york
-enters into a licensing agreement with farnsworth for many of this patents

opening the new york worlds fair with tv
fcc and the radio manufacturers association form the
national television system committe (ntsc)
the national television system committee deals with
ntsc drew up standards which were
adopted by the fcc
improvement over iconoscope and the image- dissector
image orthicon tube
total television medium in the u.s. consists of ----- serving no more than ----- sets with 7 to 10 in screens
6 noncommercial stations
in 1948, the number of stations increased to -- outlets serving -- cities
--- released a notice saying no more applications will be processed until another look is taken at --- ---

-this is known as the

channel allocation

-television freeze

the fcc put a freeze on
television licenses
why did the fcc put a freeze on television licenses?
they wanted to do it before they reached a "fork in the road"
-issued in 1952
-addressed several important issues such as:
-table of channel assignments is constructed
-educational television channels are set aside

the sixth report and order
designed to avoid interference
contruction of the table of channel assignments
issues addressed by the sixth report and order:
reduction of interference
-television development and freeze
adding uhf to television's spectrum allocation was an imperfect solution because
uhf stations did not measure up to vhf in terms of transmission and reception quality
a lot of televisions didnt receive
uhf stations
two proposed systems for color television:
cbs mechanical system
rca electronic system
in the fall of 1950, the fcc selects --- --- as standard
cbs system
rca appeals all the way to --- --- and television manufacturers ---
supreme court
color tv declared ------ to the korean war effort by the --- --- ---
non essential
national product administration
end of 1953: fcc ---- cbs decision. --- --- approved as color standard
rca system
when the fcc put a freeze on new television licenses, if you already had a license you were
free to try and get on the air
tv completely changed --- --- --- because...
radio network broadcasting
-they had to change their way of doing things to keep up
radio stations began to turn to
specialized audiences
radio stations became more dependent on
local revenue
the --- makes radio a truly portable medium in the 1950s
by ----, fm had overtaken am as the most popular radio band
popular format. helped keep radio alive
top 40
helped create top 40 format. from texas
todd storz
-gordon mclendon
over lay tp 40 innovations
-wanted high energy personalities. make everything sound more alive
programming innovations
some were reinacted and made up during shows
congress passes the all channel receiver bill in
community antenna tv starts in
rural communities
tca introduces --- --- in 1954
color tv sets
this television networkd went bankrupt in 1958
abc merged with --- --- ---
united paramount theatres
disney signs with --- to produce programming
big money quiz shows popularity ends as revelations about ---- became public
these types of shows become very popular
nightly newscats are only
15 minutes long
time of greatest stability for tv. on an incline
gets a boost from cable as cable has to carry all local stations in a market
creates pbs
public broadcasting act of 1967
congress banned -- --- on tv and radio
cigarette advertising
give way to more realism in the 1960s
escapist comedies and television
became popular items
videocassette recorders
starts broadcasting in 1987
fox network
in 1980 --- --- -- forces tv nets to reexamine their news operations
cable news networkd
revolutionizes tv coverage
electronic news gathering (eng)
extends the ability to broadcast from nearly anywhere in the world
satellite news gathering
tvro dishes are replaces by
direct broadcast satellite systems
joined am and f, providing new channels and formats
subscription based satellite radio
technology has advanced but some themes

new media
cable started in --- towns such as ---
a sharing of a common antenna system to pick up television signals
community antenna tv
first seen by broadcasters as a positive, later seen as unfair competition
deemed cable was an ancillary service to broadcast television
-local communities, states and the fcc were to

-new systems would have a minimum of

-regulate cable

-20 channels

-there would be a carriage of all

-there would be regulations on importing

-local stations

-distant signals

-pay cable services would be

-anyone with the means could launch a domsat
-satellite distribution of signals made it possible to distribute programming to local cable franchises
1972 open skies policy
the first pay service distributed via satellite
1977- appeals court rules there is no justification for treating cable as
ancillary service
1979- fcc action removing licensing requirements for
tvro antennas
-reduced fcc control over cable
-made the local community the major force in cable regulation
-large companies rushed to get local franchise rights to build cable systems

the cable communications policy act of 1984
between 1975 to 1987, the number of cable systems
between 1975 to 1987, percentage of homes with cable increased from -- to --
by 1988, the cable industry was dominated by large
multiple-system operators
today about -- of all tv homes subscribe to cable
annual revenue from subscribers amounted to -- ------ in 2000
48 billion dollars
the 1992 cable television consumer protection and competition act
imposed more regulation
--- --- reinstated with retransmission consent route option in 1997
must carry
these two things came along with the must carry being reinstated:
cash payments, other benefits such as: second channel, guaranteed channel position, etc.
authorized telephone companies to provide cable services
telecommunication act of 1996
61.3 percent nationally --- penetration
25.2 percent nationally --- penetration
popular option for people who could not get cable
took the nation by storm in the mid 1990s. there are more than ---- subscribers today
-20 million
uses microwave technology to distribute television programming
-today there are ------ subscribers
wireless cable

1 million

-debuted in 1956
-they were quickly adopted by the television networks
broadcast video tape recorders
sony introduced the --- --- in 1975
betamax vcr
in 1984, the supreme court ruled that home taping
did not violate copyright law
in 1978, --- vcr's were in use in the us
today about -------- house holds own a vcr
95 million
in 2001 about --- --- american homes had a dvd

-in 2006, about --- --- american homes had a dvd

18 million

-60 million

hard disk drive systems
digital video recorders
-sprung up across america
-by 1984, there were about 20,000 specialty....
video rental stores
became the market leader video chain
blockbuster video
long term --- --- faces competition from --- --- -- services on cable and dbc
video rental

pay per view

the global interconnection of computer networks using common communication protocols
the internet
the four main services available on the internet...
world wide web

connected four western universities and allowed researches to use the mainframes of any of the networked institutions
advanced research projects agency
cold war struggles between the us and the former soviet union...
speeds the development of the internet
provides the us with an advanced warning against a missile attack
the sage project
--- and --- --- -- were outgrowths of the sage project
video display terminal
working independently developed theoretical ideas for making computer networks less susceptible to attack
paul baran
donald davies
provided for small data packets to be sent over distributed communications networks
packet switching
purpose was to build the first interactive computer network
the us funds arpanet
become the forerunner of the internet's tcp
network control programs
in 1969 --- became operational
develops email in the early 1970s
ray tomlinson
sent the first span in may 1978
gary thuerk
extended use of the system to many university researchers
the new mass medium
personal computers
revolutionized the personal computer market
apple computer's macintosh
networks such as --- and --- provided social usage networking
-america online
domain names such as --- --- and --- extended the usefulness of networking
. gov

linked supercomputer centers across the country together
national science foundation network
the internet was born when --- replaced ---
allowed everybody to connect to the new network
independent service providers
develops idea of sing a graphical interface for retrieving information on network databases
tim berners-lee
would be used to locate information on the network and send it back to the person who requested the information
url (universal resource locator)
developed mosaic in 1993 which was the forerunner of netscape navigator
marc andreesen
today there's more than --- --- web sites
100 million
internet traffic increases and a rate of --- --- per year
100 percent
all modesl of mass communication based on this process of copying
facsimile technology
a way to describe how faithfully a facsimile represents the original
is reproduction that closely approximates the original signal
high fidelity
can be used to transmit facsimiles of pictures and sounds
radio waves
the process of changing one form of energy into another form
both analog and digital broadcasting involve different kinds of
loses fidelity at each phase of the process
analog transmission
reduces loss of fidelity in the transduction process
digital technology
television and radio signals begin as
physical energy
the physical energy that television and radio signals begin as are commonly referred to as --- --- or --- ---
light waves or sound waves
the amount of program
the amount of interference
the amount of signal present compared to the amount of noise
are subject to varying amounts of noise
are subject to varying amounts of noise
analog signals
the farter away from the transmitter,
the more noise is present
are subject to less noise interference than analog signals
digital signals
today, both digital radio and television signals have been
approved for broadcasting
sending binary data to reveivers capable of voncerting this data back into an audio or video signal
digital transmission
hdtv and sdtv are both forms of
digital television
satellite, hd radio, and internet radio are three different
digital radio platforms
steps in signal processing:

2-amplification and processing
5-storage and retrieval

frequency, length and phase are all characteristics of an
electromagnetic wave
as frequency increases,
wavelength decreases
waves attenuate as they --- --- from their source
travel away
waves may be affected by --- and ---
overtones and harmonics
in the case of electromagnetic waves, --- and --- impact electronic design and frequency allocation
harmonics and overtones
do not require an intervening medium on which to travel, such as air
radio waves
do require an intervening medium to travel
sound waves
waves that travel at 186,000 miles per second
waves that travel at 1100 feet per second
sound waves
in terms of frequency, the usable range of the radio spectrum runs from a few --- --- into the --- ---
thousand hertz
geiga hertz
the usable range of sound frequencies runs from -- -- to -- --
20 hz to 20 khz
includes visible light which ranges from red to violet
upper end of the spectrum
above violet-

below ret-



107 am channels, air and marine radio
medium frequency band
interational shortwave, cb, and ham radio
high frequency band
fm radio and tv channels 2-13
very high frequency (vhf)
most dtv channels, police radio,radar and weather satellites
ultra high frequency (uhf)
ku and c band satellites, microwave transmission, air navigation
super high frequency
special military communications
extremely high frequency
the process of defining and keeping track of what frequencies will be assigned and licensed for special purposes
spectrum management
cable tv uses coaxial cable as a
transmission medium
capable of transmitting a large, limited number of channels through the wire using analog and digital methods
coaxial cable
the ability to send a program to some households but not others

-used for pay per view tv and other services

affords almost unlimited bandwidth. uses digital technology
fiver optics
tadio and television stations are assigned a channel of
varying widths
is used at several point to accomplish modulation of the carrier frequency
frewquency search
frequency search
assignment method
mf (medum frequency)
channel width
10 khz
-designated as class a,b,c, or d stations
-operate on clear, regional, or local frequencies
-min/max power- 250/50 kw

AM broadcast service
-assignment method-fcc assignment table
-band-vhf (very high frequency)
-88-100 mhz
-channel width 200 khz

fm broadcast service
classified as a,b, or c
-min/max power- 100 w/ 100kw
-scs (subsidiary communications service)

fm radio
new digital radio system
digital audio broadcasting (dab)
a format of dab
hd radio
fcc approved ---- hd radio technology in 2003
was developed and is owned by ibiquity digital corporation
hd radio technology
signals use the same am or fm bandwidth as the stations analog signal. digital information is contained within the station's signal
in band, on channel
-higher quality sound
-auxiliary informatin

advantages of hd over analog radio
industry projects that radio will go all digital once
technology matures
currently ---- radio stations broadcast in hd
---- uses ----- to multiplex a digital stream on to the fm or am carrier
coded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing
pulse code modulation
data encoding scheme
satellite delivered direct to home or car
digital audio radio service (dars)
dars is a form of
in 1992, fcc allocated space in ---- of frequency spectrum for nationwide broadcasting of
in 1997, fcc auctioned two segments in the ---- spectrum for dars
began service in november 2001
launched service in july 2002
sirius and xm merged in
film uses this by presenting the viewer with 24 single images per second
persistence of vision
ntsc standard televisions use a rate of ------
30 frames per second
resolution of the television picture is determined by the number of
scan lines used to create a single picture
prior to dtv transition, the us used the national television systems committe (ntsc) standard of --- --- at ...
525 lines at 30 frames per second
ntsc standard equipment accomplished the ntsc standard through a process called
interlacing scanning
may use either interlace or progressive scanning
atsc standard sets
odd lines done first, then even
interlace scanning
all lines done at once
progressive scanning
creates a shade of black known as blacker than black which a television receiver is incapable of reproducing
blanking pulse
-the ability of the eye to match almost any color by using specific combinations of three primary colors
the trichromatic nature of vision
color television technology takes advantage of "the trichromatic nature of vision" phenomenon by using 3 basic colors of light
-this is also known as what process
red green blue
-additive process
red blue and yellow are known as
painting primaries
two main digital formats
-high definition tv (hdtv)
-standard definition tv (sdtv)
-highest quality digital tv available
-widescreen format 16:9/720 or 1080 horizontal lines
-basic level delivering clearer pictures; greater resolution than analog
-may be in either traditional 4:3 or widescreen 16:9 format/ 480 horizontal lines

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