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Test #2 Listed Idents


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Journalists who described the social and economic injustices in national magazines; term coined by TR; exposed societal problems to a wide audience
Upton Sinclair
Most famous muckraker; radical novelist; "The Jungle" in 1905-06 about the meat-packing industry; novel prompted the creation of the FDA (Food and Drug Administration); in the novel Sinclair advocated socialism as a solution, but most readers missed tihs point; 1934 Democratic Party nominee in CA with End of Poverty in California (EPIC) as a socialist
New Freedom
WW's platform for the 1912 presidential election; borrowed from Louis D. Brandeis's belief that concentrations of economic power threatened liberty; WW said regulatory agenices would be controlled by industries; WW wanted to use Washington's limited powers to break up lg. corps. and promote free competition; passed Underwood Tariff Act to reduce import tax; Clayton Anti-Trust Act; Federal Trade Commission to investigate corporate operations and unfair business practicesm; Federal Reserve Act; "regarded executive power as the steward of the public welfare"; in office leaned toward TR's perspective that economic concentrations of power were inevitable
Open Door Notes
Sent by Secretary of State Hayes to major world powers to propose that China remain uncolonized to provide economic opportunity for all; U.S. could not just enact because it didn't have enough economic power yet; suggested each nation would be allowed a sphere of influence in a section of China where trade would be limited to that sphere; nations accepted fearing that other countries might view them as aggressive and seeking to overhaul China for colonization
Panama Canal
U.S. had originally chosen Nicaragua; chose Panama for a 99 year yearse on a 6-mile-wide zone for an initial payment of $10 million and $250,000 annually thereafter; Columbian Senate rejected treaty asking for an initial $15 million; Panama revolted and accepted the proposal for the initial offer for a 10-mile-strip; U.S. was successful, unlike the french, because they drained the swamps where mosquitos bred causing Yellow Fever; technology also made building possible whereas ithadn't been for the French; U.S. turned control over to Panama in 2000 with stipulation that if the panama was in danger the U.S. could defend it
Roosevelt Corollary
1893; asserted America's right to intervene in any situation that threatened the order and stability of the Caribbean; marked a historic break from the Monroe Doctrine; guided American policy until the 1930s Good Neighbor Policy instituted by FDR
14 Points
WW's postwar settlement proposal based on moral principle proposing self-determination,freedom of seas, open covenants, free trade, reduced military spendings, and the creation of the League of Nations to make the world safe for democracy; prompted the 14 Reservations made by Senator Henry Cabot Lodge of Mass. stating the League charter was not in the U.S.'s best interest; Versailles Treaty was ultimately a compromise of the 14 Points still allowing imperialism
5 broad points of 14 Points:
1. Open Diplomacy
2. Open Seas
3. Reduce armaments manufacturing
4. Principles of Self-Determination
5. Call for general assembly of nations
Sacco and Vanzetti
May 1920; represented attitude toward immigrants; robbery ending in payroll master's murder involving 4 Italian immigrants; first robbery in which a car was used for get away; police claimed 2 immigrants responsible for the holdup and murder; men were admitted anarchist; during trial could not defend themselves because they could not speak English; significant because men were convicted for their beliefs, not their crime; both sentenced to death in electric chair; example of Red Scare, fear of foreignors, and social tensions of the 1920s
The original KKK formed after the Civil War to maintain the Southern social order; membership weakened and then exploded, especially with women during the 1920s due to fear of change, especially because of the influex of immigrants; originally the KKK tried to control freed slaves; made socially acceptable by fashioning itself as a middle the 1920s KKK expanded hatred to anyone who wasn't American born, white, and Protestant including Jews and Catholics; the KKK moved out of the Souther, especially to Indianan and Oregon; considered themselves "moral protectors"; downfall in late 1920s to 1930s because of internal power struggles and scandals
Scopes Trial
1925 Dalton, TN; a.k.a. Monkey Trial; John Scopes was a teacher; Clarence Darrow was the best known defense lawyer; H.L. Mencker was a columnist; Bryan argued it was better to know God than science but under cross-examination admitted "religious dogma" was open to multiple interpretations- many Americans saw this as the triumph of science of religion; according to a 1920 census the U.S. was an urban country; 51% of the country throught cities fostered vice, especially because a lack of religious involvement; trial more concerned with changing values and nature of society than evolution; fundamentalism was spreading across the U.S.; Protestants were divided into 2 groups: fundamentalism and modernism; modernists felt religion in the U.S. should be adopted to new society, primarily lived in the city; Fundamentalists insisted on literal Bible translations, wanted to prevent teaching of Darwinism, rejected science; the state of Tennesse had passed a law out-lawing the teaching of any story contradciting the teaching of any story that contradicted creationism; Clarence Darrow was the most successful defense lawyer in the United States
Securities and Exchange Comission; created of Federal Securities Act requiring issures of securities to provide full public disclosure
Public Works Administration
Appropriate $3.5 billion for public large scale construction programs; impact limited by penny-pinching head Internal Secretary Harold Ickes who wanted to no corruption in his program; much of the money spent on waatersystems like the New York Port Authority which was a coalition of 3 states; construced the LincolnTunnel from New Jersey to New York City; began to chart urban highways, bridges, hospitals, and schools
Harry Hopkins
Logistics coordinator for FERA; organized plans in short time periods across the United States including FERA, an immediate relief program which gave direct payments to people for food; FERA was allocated $500 million to state and local governments for needy families; $250 million of this went to Hopkins for distribution; also headed the CWA (Civil Works Administration), a proram that coupled relief and work; put 2.6 million on payroll to refurbish roads, schools, outdoor privies; also hired actors, librarians, historians, etc.; organized the CCC
Tennessee Valley Authority- primary goal to provide public electric power, control flooding, soil conservation, forest conservation, improvement of river navigation andtributary navigation; worked with the CCC to create recreational areas; electricity provided by the TWA competedwith private utilities and pressured them to reduce prives; all $1 billion invested in the program was recovered in electricity payments, rec. fees; unanticipated benefit was it provided power to the area where the atom bomb would be built; spent billions of federal dollars to construct dams for flood control and hydroelectric power for poorest parts of the nation; provided power to farms and made industrialization possible in the region; reclaimed and reforested lands to fight soil erosion; very popular program
Agricultural Adjustment Act (1933)- law provided farmers with subsidies for letting acreage lie fallow and shirting its use to nonsurplus crop to create an artifical crop shortage to raise prices; created a "commodity loan" program to keep crops that had already been harvested from reaching the market; goal to lessen farmer's debts, balance productivity and compensation to make prices rise; FDR approached the problem from the production side; not a popular program to destroy food while people were starving
War Industries Board
Set up in 1917 to coordinate nation's war economy; led by Bernard Barch- made purchases of supplies, allocated supplied, fixed prices to control inflation, graduated income tax
Brain Trust
FDR's advisors, mostly individuals from universities (many from Columbia law) including:
-Raymond Moley (coroprate law expert- Columbia law)
-A. A. Berk- tax structure expert
-Tugwell- professor of Columbia law; many people attirbute Social Security to him
-Rosenman- FDR's speechwriter; articulated New Deal spicifications into language common people could understand
Milo Reno
Organized a farm strike with Farm Holiday Assoation- blocked roads from farms to cities to drive farm's product prices up
National Industrial Recovery Act- First step in FDR's industrical recovery plans; setp up the NRA (National Recovery Administration) as a planning agency; under NRA supervision competing businesses with an industry met with union leaders and consumer groups to draft codes of fair competition that limited production and stabilized prices; Section 7a guaranteed worker's rights to join unions and engage in collective bargaining; it established a minimum wage and maximum hours for workers
Problems with the NRA: largest producers dominating code-making bodies; developing code for almost every industry was overwhelming; bureaucratic giant; many businesses ignored or evaded the codes; prohibited child labor
Civilian Conservation Corps; most popular New Deal program to provide the unemployed with work in national forests and parks; provided 2 million men jobs (few women) each paid #30 monthly, $20 of which was sent home to the families to be spent to generate the economy; established camps in every state for young men; workers were only supposed to join once for a 6 month period but many joined several times in diffferent states; administered by the Army but specifically not associated with the military to avoid looking like Hitler's Youth; planted over 1 million trees; many men learned skills like reading and writing because they were required to write home weekly; helped reduce regionalism by introducing kids to different parts of the country, or at least people from different parts of the country
Federal Deposit Insurance Commision- created by the Glass-Steagall Banking Act; insured banks who met federal regulations for up to $10,000 an account; assauged public fears
Francis E. Townsend
Retired dentist who proposed compulsive retirement for everyone sixty and over who would then receive $200 monthly to spend the month they got it; a "transaction tax", or sales tax, would pay for pensions; Townsend said this program would provide for the eldery as well as pump purchasing power into the economy; when it reached the house it had 20 million signatures; Townsend clubs were created; some hisotrians argue that Social Security came about because of Townsend's influence
Biggest program of the 2nd New Deal; nation's biggest employer with 3 million employees yearly and 8.5 million in the 8 yar life of the program; paid out $11 billion; built roads, public buildings, parks, bridges; partially due to encouragement from Eleanor Roosevelt, the WPA also hired artists, musicians, and writers
Huey Long
Governor from Louisiana who challenged FDR from the left; claimed the New Deal didn't go far enough; built a powerful political machine, dominated the Louisiana legislature, and restricted the press; Share Our Wealth proposed using government tax power to confiscate incomes over $1 million and estates over $5 million- the extra money would go to farmers and individual workers, including $5000 to each family for a home, $2000 annual income, free college for kids, radios, etc.; had 27,000 clubs with 4.7 million members; popular with the middle-class and populist; movement disintegrated following Long's assassination in 1935, before he was to challenge FDR for the presidency
Nye Committee
Concluded that bankers who had lent the Allies moneys were "merchants of death" along with those who had sold them ammo; World War Onehad been a conspiracy to take the country to war "for the sake of profits, for dollars"; 60% of Americans believed that U.S. involvement in WWI was a mistake
Jacob Coxley
Wealthy quarry owner from Ohio who called for government aid to the unemployed; confronted politicians in Washington with the Army of the Commonweal of Christ which marched from Ohio with 5,000 unemployed men; Coxley and his followers planned to present gov. leaders with a public works program of road building; press covered the march like it was a foreign invasion, stirring fears of labor unrest; Coxley was arrested for trespassing when he reached Washington D.C.
Home Owners Loan Corporation- provided upons of up to $14,000 at 5% interest; by end of FRD's first term, the HOLC had made more than 3 million loans totaling $3 billion
Hepburn Act
Hepburn Railroad Regulation Act (1906)- authorized the Interstate Commerce Commission to set aside railroad rates on the complaint of a shipper and to establish lower rates
Federal Trade Commission- created by Congress in 1914 with the authority to investigate corporate operations and outlaw unfair practices; in 1925 William Humphrey was appointed to head the FTC by Calvin Coolidge; big business seized control of the agency; Humphrey used the organization to help businessmen set prices and limit production costs
Jane Addams
Argued that government power could expand individual opportunity by taming the excess of industrialism; member of the Anti-Imperialist League; formed the Women's Peace Party on a platform for "human beings and the mother half of humanity" should have a say in national affairs; admired the efficency of trusts, but did not like them as opressive insitutions; Hull House- used her position on state boards ocharity and local welfare agencies to create the scaffolding of the modern welfare states; along with other progressive women helped to pass legislation to provide a monthly stipend to single mothers
Harlem Renaissance
black artists gathered in Harlem to write, paint, and perform to give expression to the pain of racism and to examine the meaning of being black in America; questions of black identity were at the heart of most works; discrepencies over whether to emphasize the similarities or differences between blacks and whites- most tried to build on the distiveness of the black experience in America; base of literary renassiance; Langston Hughes, poet; the person who did the most to publicize the movement was Aline Locke, a Harvard graduate and Rhodes scholar; jazz musicians such as Louis Armstrong and Duke Ellington played there;

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