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BIO112 Final 2


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Branches that dont reach the top
A \"fork\" in the evolution branching means
a new species is formed
The base of the bush represents
start of life on Earth
Top of the bush on the branching tree is
the EXTANT life
Who wrote the On the Origin of SPecies by means of Natural Selection.\"
C Darwin in 1859 and is bases on experiences from a 5 year trip from around the world with DOMESTIC animal
WHose ideas united the field of biology
Charles Darwin
Other than C.Darwin who was the other guy who helped with natural selection
Alfred Wallace
What is the major MECHANISM of evolution (it causes change in populations over time)
natural selection
What selection is where man SELECTS certain varieties of the domestic animal and plants (responsible for breeding)
artificial selection
What selections selects with natural selection
If the weather gets colder, drier, wetter it is a _____ that life forms are exposed to the act as a selective force
abiotic factor
Climate change is an exampled of a
nature selective force
T or F: Climate of earth is static.
Competition, Predation, and parasitism is examples of what factors
biotic factors of natural selection
In nature selection, you\'ll see variation in _____, ________, and _________ among individuals of population
morphology physiology behavior
If there is no variation, there is no _____
Some individuals of population may have certain ________ (eg. thicker fur, faster metabolism for heat generation, burrowing behavior) that allow them to survive different environmental conditions
Individuals with traits that IMPROVE survival get ______
selected for
individuals that doesnt have traits to survive get _____
selected against
Individuals of population with traits that allow them to survive better and reproduce more offspring (i.e. differential reproduction) have ___________
greater fitness
Individuals with greater fitness will ______ better than cohorts
traits must be ______ to be passed on
_______ evolve, NOT INDIVIDUALS
if popluations have changed =?
Individuals that survive and reproduce more offspring , pass their _______ for adaptive traits on to the next generation
___________ changes overtime and is in response to changes in environment
allelic frequency of populations
When individuals of populations do not adapt which allows them to survive the environmental conditions, it will become
A group of interbreeding populations that share the same gene pool (reproductively isolated from others)
Populations on plates exposed to _______climatic conditions over time
In nature see______ in morphology, physiology and behavior among individuals of population
Without variation ___ evolution
Group of interbreeding populations that share gene pool; reproductively isolated from other species
What are the two types of speciation
allopatric and sympatric speciation
In allopatric speciation populations composed of individuals taht interbreed and see similar colors indicate little variation in phenotype and genotype(same species) in two populations because of (and individuals move freely and breed between two populati
gene flow
As time passes, ________(e.g., mountain range, river, ocean, ice sheet, etc.) may divide original population(s) and prevent gene flow
geographic barriers
Changes may include traits that affect reproductive biology; may leed to "________" i.e., members of two populations can no longer interbreed freely. Now have two species
reproductive isolation
if reproductive isolation has not occured, then will see ______ interbreeding and still have ___ species
______reproduction does not occur due to differences in habitat, breeding time, behavior, and morphology mechanisms that prevent zygote from being formed
Prezygotic isolating mechanisms
_____populations live in different habitats and do not meet
Habitat isolation
little or no sexual attraction between males and females
Behavioral isolation
mating or flowering occurs at different seasons or times a day
Temporal isolation
structural differences in genitalia or flowers prevent copopulation or pollen transfer
Mechanical isolation
female and male gametes fail to attract each other are inviable
Gametic isolation
reproduction takes place but, zygote or hybrid dies before maturity, hybrid sterile, and hybrid offspring has reduced viability or fertility(hybrid breakdown)
Postzygotic isolating mechanisms
hybrid zygotes fail to develop or fail to reach sexual maturity
Reduced hybrid viability
hybrids fall to produce functional gametes
reduced hybrid fertility
offspring of hybrids have reduced viability or fertility
Hybrid Breakdown

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