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Plate Tectonics Test


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3 main layers of the Earth? Summarize each.
Crust-5 to 40km thick & 2 types: Oceanic and Continental
Mantle: Contains lithosphere and asthenoshere: rest solid
Core: Outer core and inner core, temps up to 5000 degrees C.
Relationships between layers.
1. Temperature rises as you get lower.
2. Pressure increases as you get lower
3. Inner core is solid even though the temp and pressure is higher cuase the material must expand to beocme liquid.
Difference between both crust types.
Continental-less dense, thicker, made of alumunium and silicon (granite)
Oceanic-more dense, thinner, amde of iron and magnesium (basaltic)
8 Most Common Elements
Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminium, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium
Lithosphere and Asthenosphere
Lithosphere-The crust and uppermost part of the mantle that is similar ot the crust. 100km thick. forms plates that move.
Asthenosphere-Soft flowing material; convection, moves plates
Inner Core and Outer Core
Inner Core-SOlid Materail made of iron and nickel
outer Core-Molten material made form iron and nickel
Theory of Continental Drift
A. Who?
B. Evidence?
C. Why was it only a theory?
A. ALfred Wegner
B. landforms: mountains, fossils, glacial deposits and striations.
C. No proof of how plates moved
How was sea-floor spreadying mapped?
Sonar and radar during the Cold War
Wat was found in the sea-floor spreading mapping?
Mid-Ocean ridges
Sea-Floor SPreading
A. Who?
C. Subduction and Deep Ocean Trenches
A. Henry Hess
B.mid-ocean ridge, pillows, magnetic stripes, drilling samples
C. process by which convection in the astenosphere cause the paltes to sunk beneath th e deep ocean rench and back into the mantle
Magnetic stripes on floor, why?
Axis turns-poles change-magnetic stripes are changed
Theory of Plate Tectonics
A. What is it?
B. What are plates?
A. States that pieces of the Earth's lithosphere in a slow constant motion, drivne by convection.
Three types of plate boundaries?
Transform, Divergent, Convergent
A. What is it?
B. Effect?
A.plates slide past eachither causing earthquakes
B.San Andreas Fault
A. What is it?
B. Effect?
A.Paltes move away from eachother forming new crust
B.Mid-ocean Ridge, on land-rift valley
Types of COnvergent BOundaries
Oceanic-Oceanic Continental-Continental Oceanic-Continental
in the subduction zone there is a trench where the older, more dense, subducts forming an island arc, ex. aleutian islands
Both plates are the same density so neither subducts cauing tall mtn. ranges. ex. Himalayas
Oceanic crust always subducts under a continental crust forming a trench and volcanic arc ex. Andes mtns.

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