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Biology, Chapter 7.2

Terms

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Stephen Fyler 7.2


ion
an atom or group of atoms with a postive or netgative electrical charge
Stephen Fyler 7.2


plasma membrane
the flexible boundary between the cell and its environment, which allows a steady supply of nutrients to come into the cell no matter what the external conditions are
Stephen Fyler 7.2


selective permeability
a process in which a membrane allows some molecules to pass through while keeping others out
Stephen Fyler 7.2


phospholipid
lipids with an attached phosphate group; it has a glycerol backbone, two fatty acid chains, and a phosphate group
Stephen Fyler 7.2


fluid mosaic model
the model of the plasma membrane where molecules are free to move sideways within a lipid bilayer
Stephen Fyler 7.2


transport protein
move needed substances or waste materials through the plasma membrane
Stephen Fyler 7.3


enzyme
a protein that speeds up the rate of a chemcial reaction
Stephen Fyler 7.3


cell wall
a fairly rigid structure located outside the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection
Stephen Fyler 7.3


chromatin
strands of the genetic material, DNA; contains the master set of directions for making proteins
Stephen Fyler 7.3


nucleolus
makes ribosomes and is within the nucleus is a prominent organelle
Stephen Fyler 7.3


ribosome
the sites where the cell produces proteins according to the directions of the DNA
Stephen Fyler 7.3


cytoplasm
the clear, gelatinous fluid inside a cell
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endoplasmic reticulum
the site of cellular chemical reactions; an organelle in a eukaryotic cell
Stephen Fyler 7.3


Golgi apparatus
a flattened stack of tubular membranes that modifies the proteins
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vacuole
membrane-bound compartments in cells for temporary storage of materials
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lysosome
organelles that contain digestive enzymes
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chloroplast
cell organelles that capture light energy and convert it to chemical energy
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plastid
plant organelles used for storage
Stephen Fyler 7.3


chlorophyll
a green pigment that traps light energy and gives leaves and stems their green color
Stephen Fyler 7.3


mitochondria
membrane-bound organelles in plant and animal cells that transform energy for the cell
Stephen Fyler 7.3


cytoskeleton
the support structure of a cell within the cytoplasm
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microtubule
thin, hollow cylinders made of protein
Stephen Fyler 7.3


microfilament
smaller, solid protein fibers
Stephen Fyler 7.3


cilia
short, numerous projections that look like hairs; their motion is similar to that of oars in a rowboat
flagella
longer projections that move with a whip-like motion

Deck Info

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